Chemistry Project on Estimation of Content of Bone Ash
Chemistry Project on Green Chemistry: Bio-Diesel and Bio-Petrol
Chemistry Project on Sterilization of Water using Bleaching Powder
Chemistry Project on Analysis of Fertilizers
Chemistry Project on Measuring Solubility of Saturated Solutions
Chemistry Project To Study the Setting of Cement
Chemistry Project to Measure the Amount of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
Chemistry Project on Determination of Contents of Cold Drinks
Chemistry Project on Preparation of Potash Alum
Chemistry Project on Study of Diffusion of solids in Liquids
Chemistry Project to Study the Rate of Diffusion
Chemistry Project on Variation of Conductance in Electrolytes
Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps
Chemistry Project on Spectroscopy
Chemistry Project to To Determine which Antacid Neutralizes Stomach Acid Most
Chemistry Project to Study the Quantity of Caesin in Milk
Chemistry Project to Determine the Caffeine in Tea Samples
Chemistry Project to Study the Adulterants in Food
Chemistry Project to Study the Constituents of an Alloy
Chemistry Project on Presence of Insecticides & Pesticides in Fruits & Vegetables
Chemistry Project to Study the Change in EMF of a Daniel Cell
Chemistry Project to Prepare Rayon Threads From Filter Paper
Chemistry Project to Compare the Foaming Capacity of Soaps
Chemistry Project on Preparation of Soyabean Milk
Chemistry Project on Study of Rate of Fermentation of Juices
Chemistry Project on Metal coupling in rusting of Iron
Chemistry Project on Electrolysis of Potassium Iodide (KI)
Chemistry Project to Compare Rate of Fermentation
Chemistry Project on Fatty Material of Different Soap Samples
Chemistry Project on Extraction of Essential Oil from Aniseed
Chemistry Project on Analysis of Cold Drinks
Chemistry Project on Preparation of Pigments and Poster Paints
Chemistry Project on Formation Of Biodiesel
Chemistry Project on Antacids
Chemistry Project on Evaporation of Liquid
Chemistry Project to Study Effect of Metal Coupling on Corrosion
thank you…! dis site helped me alot..:D
really this helped me a lot
yes it’s very intersting tthis site
i want tu make project on phys. and chem. of class 12 plz help me,…………….
can i help?
go to hell………….
mujhe pta he khan milenge projects
I helped you
Chutiya hai ? 😛
uppar dekh na
please help me i am 9th class i want chem project
this site helped me too….thanks
thank you…! dis site helped me alot..:D N I AM REALLY SATISFIED…FRM IT..:)
hey never thought there was another name like mine
hi.. its okay.. we have done it only to help students like you 🙂
Iam very gratul and excited for this site has help much
ya ur right……..
I m very much happy that I have found this site.
please send metallurgy project class xii
I’m happy I passed with that
i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me some good topics for it
u make project on ‘and gate’ it is very easy
Isme h info…
this siteis very good for making projects
what the fish ????
mujhe nand gate par project banana he to mujhe thery nahi mil rahi.
can u help me?
u can make project on mAgnetic induction,lenses,log gates,solenoids,etc
YA are you sure it is very easy…..
Go a step forward. Make the analogous NOR and NAND gates. Also known as ladder logic gates. a project might be uploaded on one soon
your totally mad go to hell………….. jake pani mai dub mar ………….pata nhi to are you in 12th std shame on you….
i wll hlp uuuu
sir thanks a lot for publishing this site is very helpful for student.
project work on study constituents of alloys
this site is really very helpful for class 12 students to score good marks in their topics with such a good content.
Yup !! I agree wd u,Rabia… !! 🙂
thank u sir dis syt hs helpd me a lot n hs given gr8 chnce 4 da students 2 score gud in 12th board..:D
ok first of all, your chemistry may be good, but your english needs a lot of professional help. why dont you go get a dictionary before you embarass yourself on websites like these. secondly, projects only constitute 3 marks in the board practicals. your situation is so bad that you desperately need those?! all i can say is, good luck my friend. you need it.
i would like to inform you that we have 20 marks weightage for practicals in our boards and all our internal marks depend on the kind of project we submit.
so the girl above has a good reason to worry. 🙂
well…thankyou for this site…the projects are good.
Omgg that was a way tight slap on her face! Seriously he/she needs to improve his/her english skills! I agree with you Hannah Mckay ! Better improve it because this was way to embarrasing and seriously this site helped me so good and i got a way better concept about Chemistry 🙂
Embarrass, my dear Hannah. Why don’t you get a dictionary yourself?
Well, 3 marks are not an insignificant number. Btw, she has most probably typed from a mobile phone. Anyways, if she feels its helping her a lot, why not we just leave it at that?
hannah or whatever ..why do u hve to put ur nose in other’s business …bloody attention seekers ..oh congo u drove my attention towards ur retarded comment …GET A LIFE
hello not 3 marks but a huge 30 marks.
Wow, you really had the calliber to pin point faults and judge people over the internet based.on their language skills. I mean who even does that? Oh and those 3 marks are like a really big deal for us in case you were so ignorant while doing your research about boards before posting the comment. I’m sorry if this seemed really weird to you but please stop intimidating people over the internet bc that is obviously such a sloppy thing to do. If you don’t like certain comments, ignore them bc that’s what most of us do rather than making people feel worse about themselves. This is probably a potential cyber crime. So please stop it.
Woah, calm down you know! And going by the comment that you’ve written, you might be in need of English Tutions as well. 🙂
She is using shortform that doesn’t mean she didn’t know English . also, project is complusory for all . u can’t estimate the condtion of student from this thing .
this project helped me a lot
yes this website help me thanks.
thanks .these project help me lot
thank u chemistry siyapaa for helping ma alot
i would be very much thankful.if sir/madame could give project on study of constituents of alloys.
I want to prepare bio diesel
really this site helped me a lot. keep going like this and post some more goood projects
INDEX S.No. Contents Pg.No. I Objective 5 II Introduction to green chemistry 6 III Principals of green chemistry 7 IV BIODIESEL: Using renewable resorces 10 V ACTIVITY 1: Making biodiesel 12 VI ACTIVITY 2: Testing biodiesel 14 VII ACTIVITY 3: Potential for biofuels 16 VIII Biopetrol 23 IX Conclution 30 X Bibliography 31 The Objective of this project is to study GREEN CHEMISTRY- Bio diesel and Bio petrol also study extraction process of Bio desial. INTRODUCTION TO GREEN CHEMISTY . Green chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with developing processes and products to reduce or eliminate hazardous substances. One of the goals of green chemistry is to prevent pollution at its source, as opposed to dealing with pollution after it has occurred. Principles of Green Chemistry 1. Prevention It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created. 2. Atom Economy Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product. 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment. 4. Designing Safer Chemicals Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimizing their toxicity. 5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used. 6. Design for Energy Efficiency Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. 7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable. 8. Reduce Derivatives Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection,temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. 9. Catalysis Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents. 10. Design for Degradation Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment. 11. Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, inprocess monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. 12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases,explosions, and fires. Biodiesel: using renewable resources Introduction Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils (edible or non- edible oil) and animal fats. These natural oils and fats are made up mainly of triglycerides. These triglycerides when rea w striking similarity to petroleum derived diesel and are called “Bio-diesel”. As India is deficient in edible oils, non-edible oil may be material of choice for producing bio diesel . For this purpose Jatropha curcas considered as most potential source for it. Bio diesel is produced by transesterification of oil obtains from the plant. Jatropha Curcas has been identified for India as the most suitable Tree Borne Oilseed (TBO) for production of bio-diesel both in view of the non-edible oil available from it and its presence throughout the country. The capacity of Jatropha Curcas to rehabilitate degraded or dry lands, from which the poor mostly derive their sustenance, by improving land’s water retention capacity, makes it additionally suitable for up-gradation of land resources. Presently, in some Indian villages, farmers are extracting oil from Jatropha and after settling and decanting it they are mixing the filtered oil with diesel fuel. Although, so far the farmers have not observed any damage to their machinery, yet this remains to be tested and PCRA is working on it. The fact remains that this oil needs to be converted to bio-diesel through a chemical reaction – trans-esterification. This reaction is relatively simple and does not require any exotic material. IOC (R&D) has been using a laboratory scale plant of 100 kg/day capacity for trans-esterification; designing of larger capacity plants is in the offing. These large plants are useful for centralized production of bio-diesel. Production of bio-diesel in smaller plants of capacity e.g. 5 to 20 kg/day may also be started at decentralized level. Activity 1: Making biodiesel Biodiesel is a mixture of methyl esters of fatty acids (long chain carboxylic acids). It has similar properties to the diesel fuel made from crude oil that is used to fuel many vehicles. It can be made easily from vegetable cooking oil that contains compounds of fatty acids. Enough fuel can be produced in this activity to burn in a later activity, although it is not pure enough to actually be used as fuel in a car or lorry. The synthesis is a simple chemical reaction that produces biodiesel and propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol). Cooking oil is mixed with methanol and potassium hydroxide is added as a catalyst. The products separate into two layers, with the biodiesel on the top. The biodiesel is separated and washed, and is then ready for further experimentation. What you will need Eye protection Access to a top pan balance One 250 cm3 conical flask Two 100 cm3 beakers One 100 cm3 measuring cylinder Five plastic teat pipettes Distilled or deionised water 100 cm3 vegetable-based cooking oil 15 cm3 methanol (highly flammable, toxic by inhalation, if swallowed, and by skin absorption) 1 cm3 potassium hydroxide solution 50% (corrosive). Safety Wear eye protection. Methanol is flammable and poisonous. Potassium hydroxide is corrosive. What to do Measure 100 cm3 of vegetable oil into the 250 cm3 flask. Weigh the flask before and after to determine the mass of oil you used. Carefully add 15 cm3 of methanol. Slowly add 1 cm3 of 50% potassium hydroxide. Stir or swirl the mixture for 10 minutes. Allow the mixture to stand until it separates into two layers. Carefully remove the top layer (this is impure biodiesel) using a teat pipette. Wash the product by shaking it with 10 cm3 of distilled or deionised water. Allow the mixture to stand until it separates into two layers. Carefully remove the top layer of biodiesel using a teat pipette. Weigh the amount of biodiesel you have collected and compare it to the amount of vegetable oil you started with. Apparatus for testing biodiesel Activity 2: Testing biodiesel How does biodiesel compare to other fuels? Just because we can produce a fuel from an alternative source, does that mean it is a good idea? There are many factors that go into the decision to use alternative fuels. Ideally the physical properties of an alternative fuel should equal or exceed those of the traditional product. But how are fuels evaluated in the first place. In this activity, biodiesel and some other fuels are tested and compared for sootiness and acidity. What you will need Eye protection Small glass funnel (approximately 7 cm diameter) One 250 cm3 flask Two boiling tubes One two-hole stopper to fit the boiling tubes Filter pump A piece of wide bore glass tubing approximately 10 cm long with two one-hole stoppers to fit A piece of vacuum tubing approximately 35 cm long Two short pieces of glass tubing to fit the one-hole stoppers 5 cm glass bend to fit the two-hole stopper 90o glass bend to fit the two-hole stopper (one leg to extend to bottom of flask) Two stands and clamps Two small metal sample dishes A little sodium hydroxide solution 0.1 mol dm-3 (irritant) Universal indicator solution A little mineral wool. Safety Wear eye protection. Take care if you have to insert glass tubing into the stoppers yourself. Make sure that your teacher shows you the correct technique. What to do Pour 125 cm3 of distilled water into the 250 cm3 flask and add 10 cm3 of universal indicator. Add one drop of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution and gently swirl the flask so that the colour of the solution is violet or at the most basic end of the universal indicator colour range. Place 10 cm3 of this solution into the boiling tube. Assemble the apparatus illustrated in Figure 1, attaching it to the filter pump with the vacuum tubing. Place 2 cm3 of biodiesel onto a wad of mineral wool in the metal sample cup. Turn on the water tap so the filter pump pulls air through the flask and ignite the biodiesel. Position the funnel directly over the burning fuel, so as to capture the fumes from the burning fuel. Mark or note the position of the tap handle so you can run the pump at the same flow rate later in the experiment. Allow the experiment to run until the universal indicator turns yellow and time how long this takes. Record what happens in the funnel and in the glass tube containing the second piece of mineral wool. Clean the apparatus, and repeat the experiment using 2 cm3 of kerosene (this is very similar to diesel fuel). Activity 3: Potential for biofuels 1.Technical Feasibility Can be blended in any ratio with petro-diesel Existing storage facilities and infrastructure for petro-diesel can be used with minor alteration. From environment and emissions point of view it is superior to petro-diesel. It can provide energy security to remote and rural areas. It has good potential for employment generation 2.Sources of Bio-diesel All Tree Bearing Oil (TBO) seeds – edible and non edible Edible: Soya-bean, Sun-flower, Mustard Oil etc. Non-edible: Jatropha Curcas, Pongemia Pinnata, Neem etc. Edible seeds can’t be used for bio-diesel production in our country, as its indigenous production does not meet our current demand. Among non-edible TBO, Jatropha Curcas has been identified as the most suitable seed for India. 3.Advantages of Jatropha Jatropha Curcas is a widely occurring variety of TBO It grows practically all over India under a variety of agro climatic conditions. Can be grown in arid zones (20 cm rainfall) as well as in higher rainfall zones and even on the land with thin soil cover. Its plantation can be taken up as a quick yielding plant even in adverse land situations viz. degraded and barren lands under forest and non-forest use, dry and drought prone areas, marginal lands, even on alkaline soils and as agro-forestry crops. It grows as a tree up to the height of 3 – 5 mt. It is a good plantation for Eco-restoration in all types wasteland. 4.Agro Practices (as per NOVOD, Ministry of Agriculture, GOI) Nursery raising Nurseries may be raised in poly-bags filled with mixture of soil and farm yard manure in the ratio of 4:1. Two seeds are sown in each bag. Plantation 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm pits are dug Farm yard manure (2-3 kg), 20 gm urea, 12 gm Single Super Phosphate (SSP) & 16 gm Mono Phosphate (MP) Planting density 2500 plants / ha at 2m x 2m Transplantation It should be done during rainy reason. Fertilizer From second year in the ratio of 40:60:20 Nitrogen Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) kg/ha Irrigation It is required only for the first two years Pruning During first year when branches reach a height of 40-60 cms Pest & Disease control No disease or insects noticed to be harmful Flowering and fruiting Flowering: Sept.- Dec. & March- April Fruiting After 2 months of flowering. 5.State-wise area undertaken by NOVOD for Jatropha Plantation State Area (ha) Andhra Pradesh 44 Bihar 10 Chhatisgarh 190 Gujarat 240 Haryana 140 Karnataka 80 Madhya Pradesh 260 Maharashtra 150 Mizoram 20 Rajasthan 275 Tamil Nadu 60 Uttaranchal 50 Uttar Pradesh 200 Economics (as per Planning Commission Report on Bio-fuels, 2003) Activities Rate(Rs. / Kg) Quantity(Kg) Cost(Rs.) Seed 5.00 3.28 16.40 Cost of collection & oil extraction 2.36 1.05 2.48 Less cake produced 1.00 2.23 (-) 2.23 Trans-esterification 6.67 1.00 6.67 Less cost of glycerin produced 40 to 60 0.095 (-) 3.8 to 5.7 Cost of Bio-diesel per kg 19.52 to 17.62 Cost of Bio-diesel per litre (Sp. Gravity 0.85) 16.59 to 14.98 7. Employment potential (as per Planning Commission report on bio-fuels, 2003)) Likely demand of petro diesel by 2006-07 will be 52 MMT and by 2011-12 it will increase to 67 MMT. 5% blend of Bio-diesel with petro diesel will require 2.6 MMT of Bio-diesel in 2006-07 By 2011-12, for 20% blend with Petro-diesel, the likely demand will be 13.4 MMT. To meet the requirement of 2.6 MMT of bio-diesel, plantation of Jatropha should be done on 2.2 – 2.6 million ha area. 11.2 – 13.4 million ha of land should be covered by 2011 – 12 for 20% bio-diesel blending It will generate following no. of jobs in following areas. Year No. of jobs in plantation In maintenance Operation of BD units 2006-07 2.5 million 0.75 million 0.10 million 2011-12 13.0 million 3.9 million 0.30 million Oil content 35% to 40% Collection and processing Ripe fruits collected from trees. 8. Efforts of National Oilseed and Vegetable Oil Development Board (NOVOD) Systematic state/region wise survey for identification of superior trees and superior seeds. Maintenance of record on seeds/trees. Samples of high yield to be sent to National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) for accession and cryo-preservation. NOVOD has developed improved Jatropha seeds, which have oil contents up to 1.5 times of ordinary seeds. However, being in short supply, initially these improved Jatropha seeds would be supplied only to Agricultural Universities for multiplication and development. After multiplication these would be supplied to different states for further cultivation. This program is likely to take 3 – 4 years. It is also working for development of multi-purpose post-harvest technology tools like decorticator and de-huller, which would further improve oil recovery. 9. Trans-esterification Process Vegetable Oil Alcohol Catalyst(Sodium or Potassiu m Hydroxide) Glycerin(Used for medicinal value) Bio-diesel 100 gm 12 gm 1 gm 11 gm 95 gm It is the displacement of alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a similar process to hydrolysis. Vegetable Oil i.e. the triglyceride can be easily trans-esterified in the presence of alkaline catalyst at atmospheric pressure and at temperature of approximately 60 to 70oC with an excess of methanol. If 100 gm of vegetable oil is taken, 1 gm of the alkaline catalyst (Potassium Hydroxide), and 12 gm of Methanol would be required As a first step, the alkaline catalyst is mixed with methanol and the mixture is stirred for half an hour for its homogenization. This mixture is mixed with vegetable oil and the resultant mixture is made to pass through reflux condensation at 65oC. The mixture at the end is allowed to settle. The lower layer will be of glycerin and it is drain off. The upper layer of bio-diesel (a methyl ester) is washed to remove entrained glycerin. The excess methanol recycled by distillation. This reaction works well with high quality oil. If the oil contains 1% Free Fatty Acid (FFA), then difficulty arises because of soap formation. If FFA content is more than 2% the reaction becomes unworkable. Methanol is inflammable and Potassium Hydroxide is caustic, hence proper and safe handling of these chemicals are must. 10. Agencies & Institutes working in the field of bio-diesel National Oil seeds and Vegetable Oil Board, Gurgaon PCRA – Petroleum Conservation Research Association (MOP&NG) IOC (R&D) Centre, Faridabad Delhi College of Engineering IIT, Delhi IIP, Dehradun Downstream National Oil Companies Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad CSIR Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources Central Pollution Control Board Bureau of Indian Standards Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency States, which have made some lead Uttranchal: Uttaranchal Bio-fuel Board (UBB) has been constituted as a nodal agency for bio-diesel promotion in the state. Has undertaken Jatropha plantation in an area of 1 lakh hectare. UBB has established Jatropha Gene Bank to preserve high yielding seed varieties. Has ambitious plan to produce 100 million liters of bio-diesel. Andhra Pradesh: Govt. of AP (GoAP) to encourage Jatropha plantation in 10 rain shadow districts of AP Task force for it has been constituted at district and state level GoAP proposed Jatropha cultivation in 15 lakh acres in next 4 years Initial target is 2 lakh acres Irrigation to be dovetailed with Jatropha cultivation 90% drip subsidy is proposed Jatropha cultivation to be taken up only in cultivable lands with existing farmers. Crop and yield insurance is proposed Chhattisgarh: 6 lakh saplings of Jatropha have been planted with the involvement of State’s Forest, Agriculture, Panchayat and Rural Development Departments As per the Deputy Chairman, State Planning Board, the state has the target to cover 1 million ha of land under Jatropha plantation Ten reputed bio-diesel companies, including the UK-based D1 Oils, have offered to set up Jatropha oil-extraction units or to buy the produce from farmers in Chhattisgarh. Companies like Indian Oil, Indian Railways and Hindustan Petroleum have each deposited Rs 10 lakh as security for future MoUs with the state government. 11. Farmers’ Initiatives in Haryana Farmers in Haryana have formed NGOs and cooperatives for promotion of Jatropha plantation. These NGOs and cooperatives are raising nurseries for Jatropha plantation and supplying saplings to others for further cultivation. They have been blending directly Jatropha Oil into diesel fuel and successfully using this blend in their tractors and diesel engines without any problems. These NGOs and cooperatives are also organizing the practical demonstration of this usage in their demonstration workshops. They are organizing local seminars, workshops and conferences etc. to promote the usage of Jatropha oil. NGOs have also printed some booklets on Jatropha plantation. 12. Current usages of bio-diesel / Trials & testing of bio-diesel Usages of bio-diesel are similar to that of petro-diesel Shatabadi Express was run on 5% blend of bio-diesel from Delhi to Amritsar on 31st Dec. 2002 in association with IOC. Field trials of 10% bio-diesel blend were also done on Lucknow-Allahabad Jan Shatabdi Express also through association with IOC. HPCL is also carrying out field trials in association with BEST Bio-Diesel blend from IOC (R&D) is being used in buses in Mumbai as well as in Rewari, in Haryana on trial basis . CSIR and Daimler Chrysler have jointly undertaken a successful 5000 km trial run of Mercedes cars using bio-diesel as fuel. NOVOD has initiated test run by blending 10% bio diesel in collaboration with IIT, Delhi in Tata Sumo & Swaraj Mazda vehicles. BIO-PETROL Introduction Measures to be implemented to resolve the problem of sewage sludge that contain a high degree of organic matter could primarily aim at recycling it through a thermo chemical pyrolysis process in order to recover hydrocarbons that make up the structure of sewage sludge. Pyrolysis of sewage sludge produces oil, gas and char products. The pyrolysis oils have also been shown to contain valuable chemicals in significant concentrations and hence may have the potential to be used as chemical feedstock. The production of a liquid product increases the ease of handling, storage and transport. The technology, improved by BioPetrol Ltd. (patent pending) is capable of processing carbon wastes, other than sewage sludge, including agri-wastes, bagasse, pulp and paper residues, tannery sludge and other end-of-life products such as plastics, tires and the organics in municipal solid waste.The process of low temperature thermochemical conversion of municipal sewage sludge to oil is a new technology in developed countries. The amount of investment is still less than the amount invested in the sewage sludge incineration process, and the operational economy of the process is obviously superior to incineration. The BioPetrol, Ltd. integrated thermochemical process (patent pending) recovers about 1,100,000 Kcal from each 283 kg of sewage sludge 90% D.S. after the thermal evaporating of 717kg water from each dewatered ton (1,000 kg) of sewage sludge 26% D.S. The BioPetrol process begins with sewage sludge at 90% D.S. Sewage sludge drying equipment is used commonly for the evaporative removal of interstitial water from the sludge. Numerous drying technologies exist on the market. Market Analysis and Strategy Three potential products/services: 1. Disposal of Sewage Sludge – Disposal of sewage sludge comprises over 30% of wastewater treatment plants’ budget. Customers of this service are local communities. They are willing to pay top dollar for the disposal of their sludge. For example: Holland $50-$90 per ton, U.S., Canada and Australia, up to $150 per ton. The US produces 25 million tons of sludge annually (2001). 2. Synthetic Crude Oil – Excess crude oil, beyond what is being recirculated to run equipment A+B is about 30 kg per 1 ton sewage sludge 90% D.S. Oil energy = 8,900 Kcal/kg same as diesel oil used in heavy industry. There are references in professional literature to numerous valuable chemicals in significant concentration that are present in pyrolysis oils. BioPetrol Ltd has on board, as a shareholder, an internationally renowned scientist-academician to address this issue. 3. Selling the Technology – With the completion of the development of the process and equipment for its operation, BioPetrol. Ltd. will have the technology to sell to world markets. Potential markets are water authorities, municipalities, wastewater treatment plants, entrepreneurs, sewage sludge disposal contractors, sludge drying operators. BioPetrol, ltd. has been awarded a grant of $300,000 for a period of 2 years by Israel’s Office of the Chief Scientist to conduct advanced R&D. The company has concluded and proved the viability of the process and is now on the verge of constructing a demonstration pilot for a continuous process. BioPetrol is seeking an investment of US$400,000 for the completion of the demonstration pilot. A business plan is available for further details. Technology The technological processes at issue in the Bio-Petrol project belong to the sphere of liquefying carbon-rich solid fuels. The liquefaction processes common today comprise two stages: 1. Thermal breakdown of the molecular structure to create radical fractions different in size. 2. Stabilization of the radicals by recombining themselves or by redistribution of hydrogen from the raw material itself or by hydrogen that is introduced from outside (molecular hydrogen or from hydrogen-donor matter). Bio-Petrol Company has carried out R&D work which has resulted in the formulation of a suitable process for producing synthetic oil from sewage sludge with larger output than that obtained from the common process-i.e. pyrolysis. By integrating familiar liquefaction methods the company developed a process of high utilization of the organic matter that is in the sewage sludge that produces oil and gas in larger quantities and of better quality. What is Ethanol? Ethanol is part of a category of molecules called alcohols. The simplest alcohol is called methanol and is very similar to a compound called methane. Methane is a molecule composed of one carbon atom surrounded by 4 hydrogen atoms. In methanol, one of these hydrogen atoms is replaced with an oxygen atom with a hydrogen atom attached to it. This two atom group, oxygen attached to a hydrogen, is called an alcohol group. Any molecule that has an alcohol group attached to it can be called an alcohol. To make it easier to talk about, chemists add an “ol” on the end of a chemicals name to indicate that it has an alcohol group. Therefore, methane with an alcohol group attached is called methanol. For ethanol, it is an ethane molecule –two carbon atoms, with six hydrogen atoms surrounding them—with one hydrogen replaced by an alcohol group. Then, the name ethane is changed to ethanol, to indicate that it is an alcohol. How Ethanol is Made Ethanol has been used by humans for thousands of years, in part because it is easy to make. In fact, nature can make it for us in a process called fermentation. Fermentation is a biochemical process carried out by microscopic organisms called yeast. Yeast are anaerobic, meaning they can live and eat without needing oxygen. Many living things eat sugar, and yeast eat sugar too. When there is no oxygen, yeast chow down on sugar, but they can’t get all of the energy that is available in sugar out of it. Instead they use it to get some energy, and in the process of digesting it, convert it into ethanol and carbon dioxide Petrol. Yeast are even used to make bread. When making bread, bakers use the yeasts ability to make carbon dioxide Petrol to make the bread rise, making it thicker. If it were not for yeast, pizza dough would be flatter than a pancake. Scientists have also invented ways to make ethanol synthetically, without utilizing nature’s help. The process converts a byproduct of making Petrololine into ethanol. Although this process is used, more than 90% of the ethanol produced per year is made using yeast. Replacing Petrololine with Corn? Yeast only consume simple sugars, so only certain foods are good for putting them to work making ethanol. Bakers use the sugar that you can find in your kitchen. But it takes a lot of kitchen sugar to fill the tank of your car with ethanol. Some countries, such as Brazil, that grow a lot of sugar use it to make ethanol for cars. Brazil has been producing ethanol fuels for decades. The United States does not have enough sugar cane plants to do this. Instead, the U.S. has focused on using corn. Corn has less sugar in it than sugar cane, requiring scientists to develop ways to convert corn’s more complex sugars into simple sugars. Critics of using corn for fuel say that it takes more energy to make ethanol from corn than it takes to make regular Petrololine. However, a recent review of many different studies in the American Chemical Society journal, Environmental Science and Technology, suggests that in most cases, using corn would still save us from using as much fossil fuels as we would if we just used Petrololine. Sticks, husks, and grass to Ethanol? A new method is being developed that may be even more promising than using corn or sugar cane as yeast food. All plants make a complex sugar called cellulose and it is one of the most abundant plant materials on earth. Cotton is almost all cellulose, and some forms of cellulose can be found in many of the foods that we eat. Trees have it. Grass has it. Even corn stalks. But yeast don’t eat cellulose. Recently several groups of researchers have developed enzymes, which are complex molecules that operate like little machines, to break apart cellulose into simple sugars that the yeast can eat. What makes this very interesting is that farms and other industries already produce tons and tons of waste materials that contain cellulose. Just imagine, all the sticks and grass clippings from your yard or playground could be turned into fuel for your car. Farms can also grow plants for making ethanol. President George W. Bush mentioned one of these, switch grass, in the 2006 State of the Union address. Therefore, farms or timber companies can convert their waste into ethanol. There is also one additional benefit, and challenge to processing cellulose. Cellulose is often stuck together with another plant compound called lignin. Lignins are compounds that make plants strong, and they trap cellulose. Lignins are one of the waste products of papermaking. But, lignin materials extracted from waste materials used for making ethanol can be burned to power the process, saving more fossil fuels. It’s not a question of if we will stop using oil but when. Soon, we will all have to replace oil with a different, renewable source and ethanol may be the answer.
Read more at: http://projects.icbse.com/chemistry-457
this website is really helpful for the students
mai bhi bohot help karunga aa ja ek baar
This website contain very useful data, and also help to improve the very thgeneral knowledge. Thank you very much to introduse this website.
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Q. Electrochemstry as ambling Project’s
nice.. but not so good (0.O)
really this site is very helpful for student of class 12th
The experimets in this site are good but there are not the projects for the exhibutions or the bigger project.//////////////////////////////////////////////
yipee…!!! d site helped a lot to statisfy the teacher n ofcourseme too… thanq…
Helped a lot
thankyou soo much!!!!!!this website is really very useful!!!!
thankyou soo much!!!!!!this website is really very helpful!!!!!!!!1
Thanx a lot…
I was very tensed for my chem project but this site helped me …
This website is a boon for students
guyz i hav to make project on biology…….can u suggest me some of the topics which are easy………….
i will be greatly thnkful 2 u……
all projects are given here xcpt mine study effect of potassium bisulphite as food preservativ under various conditions………cn anyone help me plzzzzz
plzz help me as soon as possible
Sir/madam i would be truely greatful if u could help me with a project on the determination of mass percentage of oil from different oilseeds
The informatio shared here is worth apperiatiation
dis helped me a lot……
This site makes it very convenient for the student to perform experiments or benefit from someone else’s research.
I am quite satisfied!
Really, Very helpful site…
i very sad that my topic is not there
i want to do water analysis..bt it is not available
THESE are some OF THE WORK OF BONAFIDE STUDENTS
thanks alot! this is really great..! direct copy in d book! 😀 😉
useless site.. I’ll never visit dis again 🙁
u are right…..same with me it’s really useless..
i need more topics on chemistry projects which are simple and all their contents are easily available. Please
such a useful i got thank for this site.
ya its nice i really benified by using this page…
this site is very useful for me……because i have complete my project through this site
Thanks this site is very useful for class 12 students to score well in their boards..Thanks a lot…:D
Its Nice Website. Thanks to introduce this Website
This is an awsome site for students
Helps a lot in making projects
A VERY HELPFUL SITE ……………TTTHHHAAANNNKKKsssssssssss…………..
This site is really helpful for us
helped me a lot bt wanted mre on analysis…
wanted more on salt anaylsis
very useful information been given on dis site .thank u !!!!!
I want a chemistry project on study the effect of potassium bisulphite as food preservatieve under various conditions.
where is it no one made that one
thanks for helping me in work thank u soo much
PROJECTWORK-(1)Preparation of ferric hydroxide sol,(2)To compare cleanig capacity of soaps,(3)To analyse fruit and vegetable extract,EXPERIMENT-To study digestion of starch by saliva (I WANT THIS ALL PROJECTS PDF PLEASE SEND THIS PROJECTS PDF IN MY EMAIL ID)
this is a good website to,find out information about many topics of chemistry to make projects…….
so,this is a good website,fiind out the infos.
no related information about medicinal chemistry is provided here
ωαηт 2 μαк℮ ρяøנℯḉ☂ [email protected]
ḯ ᾔεℯḓ ℌℯℓρ…..
please contct me :- [email protected]
This site helped me a lot………….thanx!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
cool projects..thank u sooo much..!! 🙂
please anyone oxalate ion ka daldo yaar
dis site helped us a lot . thank u
i want to make a project for chemistry class .please suggest me some good topics for it
specially with enviromental contents to help students survive their own city or town. besides this website is really helpful for the students thanks.
nice 1 but information for is 2 short
Can anybody suggest a project on biology
Tanks this for site.
Toooooooooo good 🙂
this site helped me a lot to complete my 12th standard project of chemistry
it’s really great……
plz sugest proj on differenttypes of indicators use in volumetric analysis
thank you. This has helped me complete the chemistry project soon.
really this site help a lot …………….. than you sir
please can anybody suggest me chemistry project.
Sir/mam can u pls suggest me a project on electrochemical cells and batteries
Sir/mam pls suggest me the project on electrochemical cells and batteries
thumbs up to this site….
Thank you… this site helped me a lot.I was able to do good and easy project.
this is a nice stuff n helped me alot…
Its really helpfull for students
this site helps me alot!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
areeeeeeeeeeeee coconut water par to kuch bhi nhi h vo to daloooooooooooo
Thank u….. this has really helped me a lot…..
saala kuch ni milta yahan pr bakvaas site h
i couldnt find anything on this site…..-_-
i like this site very much it help me a lot in my project
I m very much happy that I have found this site.i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me some good topics for itu make project on ‘and gate’ it is very easysir thanks a lot for publishing this site is very helpful for student.
I m very much happy that I have found this site.i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me some good topics for itu make project on ‘and gate’ it is very easysir thanks a lot for publishing this site is very helpful for student. sooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo gooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooood
thanku very much this website helps me a lot….
I am thankful,for whoever created this site
This website is very usefull for chemistry project
thanks for this site
i m very gradeful n satisful with it
project on study of effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservatives under various condition (temperature ,time,concentration)
this website is very helpful m feeling lucky thanx
this site very useful to me as well as other XII students.
information gives more knowledge
this site very helpful
information about the topic is giving knowledge about that
This website is awesum….. bt plz write the observation for the project..TO STUDY THE QUANTITY OF CAESIN PRESENT IN MILK……
thanks a lot 🙂
the site helped me a lot
chemistry project is the most important project for the 12th class student.
how to download it is only for read,,,,…….
this site is useless for me
I m very much thankful 2 ds webside. I get a good project of preparing bio-diesel…..
plz suggest me good topics for chemistry project…………….
as soon as possible…
can you plzzzzzz provide a project on to analyse presence of cation, anion & carbohydrate in a sample of honey
It’s so cool & so helpful
Thankss A lot..,…
Thankss a lot…..
this site is damn awesome….nd it helped me alot…thanx a bunch
Thanks… for help …..
this site is awesome , it really works , thanks to administrator
thanxx alot sir…its very useful site….
this site help me lote
really wonderfull to hav ready made projects,cool it saves time… thankeww
I am very happy… This site help me lot…..:-)
this is golden place or as like wishing tree here you wanted you shall get 100 percent
this site helps me a lot……. thanks………
m highly thankful to dis website.
Really Appreciable…………….. Helped a lot!!!!!!!!!!!
we want chemistry practical about carohydrates fats protiens in food stuff of class12
Thank you fot the project i am very lucky to visit this site.
the site is really good..but can you also include project to study the ph level & variation in taste of different tea leaves..please
i want to make project on the topic of electrochemical cell n eltrolytic cell..plz suggest some main requirements….
i would be very much thankful.if sir/madame could give project on study of constituents of alloys
owe u guys a lot.graet site.saves time n helps alot
eh well small msitake der..its grt site
“This site is very useful for every student”……..
REALLY impressive website
WORKS PERFECT WITH GOOD MATERIAL
ya…its completely helpful….thanxx…
its so help ful to students like me.please add somemore interesting projects
I Want project on biomolecules for class 12
thank this project me
Please who can help with the materials of this topic;comparative analysis of caffeine contents of some tea leaves,coffee and paracetamol tablets
thanxxxx!!!! to help me a lot
great thanks a lot
I m vry happy to search thiz site it is very useful our project
which one is the easiest?
sir, i want the project name as “determination of boiling point of 1m solution of sugar, glucose, urea, sodium chloride, barium, aluminium chloride. this is most importnat for me so sir, plz send me this project as quick as possible. thanks…..!
yes i am very lucky to got this website i need to this website very much , thanking u.
not at all copied from wiki
it’ a very good site for projects
thank you…thank you very much …! dis site helped me alot..
thank u for help to find the great projects
I am very thankful for these projects , because It helped me to score marks in practical.
This side is really great,it helps me a lot……thanks,v all r thankful 4 this side,thank you SIR/MAM
thank you so much it is outstanding………………….
THANK U FOR HELPING…..
chutiya website hai…sab kuch farji hai
can u give upload a project on adsorption,,,,,,,,,,i will very thankfull to u
bahut bakwas site h. isse fail ho jaoge
these website is one of the best website for student..and these site is fullfilled also..so thank’s for making these type of site.
sir i could not found my chemistry project
the topic isqualitative analysis of tooth power of differents brands
Which one to choose from these…… The best of all ???
very nice websitee..helps me alott..but limited projects of chemistry are available
Really, this site is very useful nd helpful for every science student bcoz all type projects found on this site.
Thanku its a nice encouraging site for students
It is a very helpful site for the future of India. so this is my gratitude towards you all.
thank you a lot…….!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Thnkx,This site provides me a lot……………. to know
This sites proves to be very useful………………………………………………………………..
This site proves to be very useful…………………….
how can i find some theory , work for on Noble Gasses Project
or on which perfect site plz reply on email plzzz [email protected]
i urgently need for it…
This site is very useful for us i am student of class 12th.
i contain many good notes.
i’m lucky that i found this website
Thankyou , for free projects….This is save time of students …….
really great site
very very good
my project is about estimation of iron content in leaves(spinach,mustard and corriander)…….
can help me for it……??
dis site has rely held me…..in sugstng di projct…..thnkxxxxx….
dis site has rely help me…..in sugstng di projct…..thnkxxxxx….
The project topics here are wonderful, more grease to your elbows.
:)tnx for the knowledge
This website helped me to shine in front of my colleagues.thank u .
really dis site z mostly helpful 4 chemistry students
i didnot find this useful!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
its nt jst the help but the quickness & guidance it has provided with…m grateful….
this site is very usefull
This site had too many interestin data,
that I live to went in this website to have
a project on chemistry thanks verymuch
Thanks very much………..
thank u this site is really good helped me alot
I am very happy thanks 4 introducing this website
Suggest me some good topics for physics project pls reply asap
Suggest me some good topics for cbse physics project for 12th class
Good place for academic support…….very nice!
diz reli helpd me a lot! I hav got a detaild info of ol da practicals
Thnq for the project ideas..it really helped! 🙂
A very useful information hasbeen published…..Thanking you a lot….!!
your attempt is great but implementation has not reached the level . the topics should not only be for the project but should also provide knowledge for the students.and also u should be able to include simple & informative projects from outside.
then also this is great thing that u have done.hans of 2 u
this site is seriously very helpful
very useful projects…………helped me alot……..:-)
Thanks a lot 😀
plz provide a project report gased on analysis of diferent samplesof face powder
I want a project on percentage of glucose in different sample of biscuits plz send me details as fast as possible
The information consist on this website is awesome
very nice site so interesting and useful.
this site is so helpful to me………..!
This Site is best..it helped me alot…Thank You….:)
this is best of my life
thanks a lot//////
thnx a lot…dis has been vry helpful nd informative…great job!!!
may you please upload a project on detection of poisonous in candies(cheap)…
thank you cbse
this website was absolutely no help at all. if you people wanna help students then please give us interesting experiments. all these tests that yu keep talking about, we do in the lab already. so get a life. seriously. and let us also live ours.
Ya you are right , this site sucks
Dude…as ua name says..u r nt indian..!! in cbse board..we r suppose 2 do these projects nd we hav around 30 marks fr it..!! so ..u gt a life..!! nd stop commenting rubbish stuff.!
I need a chemistry investigatory project on ANALYSIS OF TOOTHPASTE
did you get one? if yes email it to me please [email protected]
the site provides the users with the cbse class 12 chemistry projects’ topics as well as their information, i.e. helpful in making a project complete. awesome efforts!!!
Please send me the project early
sir i want to relationship between dance body energy
yup , this is really helpful 4r all ……..
this site is really wonderfull ……
podi purre..fuck off dumb ass hole
IT’S A VERY USEFUL SITE AND HELPED ME A LOT……………………….IT MADE THINGS VERY EASY FOR ME ………THANKS AGAIN ^_^ ^_^
I really thank the management of this website along side with the owner of the site for been a saving grace to students.
The site has really help me alot in my field of studies…. Once again I appreciate your effort.
diszz a very gud site for studntzzz really helpd meh alot
m vry thankfull
this site hlp me really very very
reaaaaally dis site hlpd mee alot… 🙂
bt i need to knw whch is the easist project among dis???
der s alot of prjcts here….it hlpd….bt iam really cnfused to slct a topc…
so ny1 pls hlp me 🙁
pls help with a project on metallurgy 🙂
Brother i also need a pro. on metallurgy can u help me nd reply asap i dnt have much time
thank you so much… it helps me a lot…
saanu chad k gaira de sang jodn waaliye
tera vi dil tutna dil todan waliye ni.
thank you ncert plz make the projects more lengthy……..
which is the best and easy investigatory project ???? please help…
this site helped me a lot
thanks to he person who ever had posted the projects on the site becoz it hlpd me a lot for completing my project.
i am very happy and thank u sooooooooo much this site is very amazing:::
Awesme site it helpd me a lot.
this site help me alot
a very very helpful site
This Site is very helpful for me
great project works, it helped me alot for doing my project work
have seen the list of project topics and they are all great will like it more when i choose my own topic to write. Thanks alot
pattti thendi asshole bloody whore chickeen fatty thendi stomach bloody uganda
gr8 work thnx alot it helped me n mah frndz alott.. 🙂 😀
i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me a good topics.
This is very helpful for me to choose the topics ….
thanxxx for making my confusion away and helping me to choose the topic for my project
hehhehe….nyc syt to cpy without using much of own witzz…:D
i have to make a project on solubility and solubilty in products of solid plz help me
Magnificent beat ! I would like to apprentice
at the same time as you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for
a blog web site? The account helped me a applicable deal.
I were tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered shiny clear idea
sala mera project to h he nhi
Dying of Fabrics wala
i like this site very much because it helped me alot
Pls Boss, i want to send a complete work on d topic: Estimation of contents of Bone Ash………………. Be expecting your reply on my gmail. BOSS
This is really a very helpful site
THIS SITE IS REALLY HELPFUL. BUT MORE PROJECTS SHOULD BE ADDED.
This Website is very helpful for me
mjhe jo chahiye uske alawa sab hai apke paas…………..thnk u apse mjhe koi madad nai mili
Thanku “hlp k liye”
sir i want to project of uses of metales…. please help me..
sir i want to chemistry project the uses of matales…please help me.
how to do a project for the analysis of soil for the presence of diffrent nutrients(K,I..etc.)
this is the best site for chemistry
please help me guys i want to make a project on chemistry about drugs….
ONLY ONE IS GOOD
Thanx………………. It helped me a lot.. I found some awesome topics here 😀
thanks this sight for help me see project
thanks this sigh for help me to see project
thank, this site help me alot ,I need information about (nylon) plastic that relate human life.
This site is very very useful for school and colleges students. By this any of us like student make its subject srap …………………
I want to get project topics related to pharmacy
THIS SITE IS REALLLYYYYY………..GOOD………..
IT REALLY HELPED ME
Thanks as they help me in doing project
tank you dude……..
thanks a lot that amazing it healps me to
these projects are very useful for me…..plz make the projects more lengthy with more than one or two observation column
thanks u……helps to me
also give a new project….abt chemistry
Thanks it is very helpful to me. It helped me to make my project .It is very usefull 4 student.
I Want To Find A Investigatory Project On Chemistry
best!!!!!!!!!!!!!! perfect website for all topics ….
I WISH U ASLO HAD PROJECT IDEAS FOR EVS (ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES) THIS IS THE ONLY TOPIC WERE THIS WEBSITE LACKS BEHIND
or else just gr8 job 4 making d hard work of project soooo easyyyy!!!!
most disgusting projects ever !!!
I am very happy to found this web Sid
i m thankful to this site
It is very helpful site
thanks a lot.!!
I want to make chemistry project.Please
total fargewada……. generation ko aage bdne ka mauka he nhe deya ja rha….
Chemistry is the
best subject for us
it is a mokar bhari ,changalay must ahe
So esy for projectproject.
dis is so helpful. but m not sure dat i can do any1 of this.
nayinte thendi inda patti na indi amma pottan
myre!!!!!!! pooorrrrrr…….oru kopumilla!!!!!!
Tell me project on
determination of mass persentage of oil from oil seeds
thank uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu so much this web site helped meee a lot…………………………….
im very happy that i found this site .
i get tensed for my project but help of this site i will make my project best . 🙂
its’s really nice
thnq fr ths wndrfl site….i foubd it tody…n it helpd me alot…..
plz help me to find out abt-Dialysis and analysis of sewage water
Man the project on biofuels is just awsome . killer site
no project on the topic ‘tanic acid content in various tea samples’.
10x a lot. This site is very helpful for students wanting to do their chemistry project.
10x a lot. Excellent joa!
A Very good website for 12th students.
It Helped me a lot to go forward with projects in both 11th adn12th
Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?
I have a blog centered on the same ideas you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information.
I know my viewers would enjoy your work. If you are even remotely interested,
feel free to shoot me an e mail.
This information is very useful, I really appreciate
urvashi can u give me observation table of topic-fermentation of various food materials pls
Pls help me for the. Chemistry project of. . . Qualitative assisment of coins
This is tooooooo…. good.
it was really useful
this site help me alot. Thank you very much……
This site had helped me a lot to select the topic 4 my project………………thnxx a lot
i want to make a project on how to measure the amount of chlorine in a water sample….please help..
its to good for students
best and simplest ever website
Guyss plzz help me to get d best topic for chemistry project… em little bit confused on seeing above topics as all r of gud approach … plzz help fast…
i need a project having the aim:
“TO DETErMINE THE FAT CONTENTS IN VArIOUS KINDS OF DrY FrUITS”
can u plz give me some details?
this site is my bst moptin to help me in any project work…
Ths syt help m a lott so vry2 txxxxx 2 u ($ite developrs) 🙂 ******
AMAZING, FABULOUS, LIKED IT!!!!
THE LIST OF PROJECTS ARE REALLY GOOD AND HELPFUL
i want a project on stability of emulsions i.e on emulsifyng agent…… 🙁
can u help me……
plz help me prepare a working chemistry project
plz get me a project on determination of acid contnts in sour fruits asap
ths website is good not best….
all r projects experimantly not Theoriticaly even 1 single project
thanks to all
Very good info. Lucky me I recently found your website by accident (stumbleupon).
I have book-marked it for later!
hey guys, i want to write on: Determination of heavy metals in palm oil
I want project on presence of different funtion group in perfume
to dermine silver from x-ray film????????procedure????
it is vry good nd nice project……… bt i sour ki isse hmare mind ki knowlege hi badegi
This site help me and my friend a lot
easy to make my project wid this
sir, i need project on “Qualitative analysis of toothpaste”. i have done this experiment in lab. but my teacher is asking for the theory portion of minimum 15pages. i hav used colgate total & pepsodant(germi-check) to analyse. i realy need the help urgently coz im nt getting a single site to help me out.
i wanaa a new topic on chemistry investigation project
can i get a project on the topic-effect of potassium bisulphate as a food preservative…?????
wowwww……it rly hlpd dude…
Tanxxxx very much….
Awsm site it helpd me a lot..
sir do you have more new project?
if upload them……..
i want tu make project on phys. and chem. of class 12 plz help me,…
sir i want a project on the topic synthesis of “soap and detergent”
help me out
really helpful at crucial times
u doing a great work
you are a moterfuckin bitch….thats all….
very very good projects write it as it is without editing
Its a good site for projects
thanks a lot.
Thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx for help……….
Thk’s sir ….ths site really help full…:-)
it was about thinging level “thank you “
wow………………………………..it’s wonderful. I’really like it.
thnkx for open this side for us………….
Thanks! to this website it helped me for my project.
i need to me make project of physics……………………….. plz plz plz plz plz plz plz plz plz hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhheeeeeeeeeeeeeeeellllllllllllllllllllllllppppppppppppppp mmmmmmmmmmmeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Its really HELP dude…
i need a project on
to analyse constituents of honey
most help full site
10xx alot…d site saved me…cozz it waz impossible 2 search for n work on a topic in juzz 4-5 dayzz b4 prac exmzz…cozz v wer infrmd soo..!!
thx …. it helped alot
These projects need some improvisation other wise its quite okay
more improvment had to be needed in this site
good but not excellent
THIS STUFFF HELP ME A LOTTTT TO MAKE MY PROJECT FILE……………….
wowwww……This information is very useful……it really helps alote…….thanx
get lost dis site is a total syapa nd , bitch plzzz…
thanku i have no word to say thankes
its very helpful and handy
i got first prize for my project….. 🙂
this site is very helpfull for me………………….
i want the readings of study of rates of fermentation of apple and carrot juice.. can anybody give?
can some one give me observation table of topic-fermentation of various food materials pls
Plaese help in making chemistry project
thanks these projects help me a lot
this is really a good website
really helped a lot thnx 🙂
this site is really nice for all…………….
its a very helpful site. I got many topics for my project
Chemistry poject for class 11th. PLEASE HELP.
thanx u for helping student
Many Many thanks to this site and to all who have submitted the project report in this site. Once again thanks to all as it help me a lot for completion of my project work.
a very helpful site
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!AMAZING SITES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
really dude very helpful sites with latest opricald!!!!!!!!!!!!!………………………
🙂 🙁 😉 😛 =-O :-* :O B-) :-$ :-! :-[ O:-) :- :'( :-X 😀 :-@ <3 <3 <3 <3 :-V <3 <3 :-O :-O
thnxx for help ur m give u lots of thnxxx
Thank you sir
this site is so helpful. to me to complete. my chemistry. project
wao……………… this site is nice nude
This site is very useful for student
ahighily appriciate project. well better than other
thanku for this site
Thanx Alot to my this site.. it helped me many times… and its helping me nwdays also.. once again thanks
bakwas 3rd class
go to hell…
agli baar mat karna
it is the nice one
but very confusing…..
would u like to help me….
Bhenchod lauda project !!! no use need CBSE topics fool!!
its helpfulll dudes .thanks
i m from vasishtha vidhyalaya surat… and really appriciete this site as sir has given us…
u r project is good if any project aveilable. . . . mail me
this is very nic web site for all subject & very IMP for school project
guys i will recommend all to use this site since it is very helpful and all the projects are according to the CBSE guidelines except one or two which does not have certificates or acknowledgement or the other stuffs.
thank you so much the projects are really helpful and interesting
wow what a site! it gave me a helping hand in my project
i want a isc 2 project topic in chemistry.
i want to make a project on analysis of honey plz upload some more previous years files to make my project easier
Nice and helpful website. Got great help.
Α̲̅♍ damn apy 4 dis outcome… Dis site Ȋ̝̊̅ڪ fucking wow
I pay a quick visit every day a few web sites and sites to read
posts, except this blog offers quality based content.
It helped me a lot but most of the topics are covered by my classmates.So,I am trying to make project on contents of medical drugs.so plz help me.
pls I need a write up on eco-friendly detergent containing zeolite
please i need project on analysis of tooth paste plss
Thanks alot! More effort should be made to have project topic on the chemistry of fire and crime chemistry…
I want yo make project for biology and chemistry . help me out sir plz…………………………..
I want to make chemistry project …….plzz. help me.
I want to do the assignment work on imperfection of soap. Kindly give me some materials required for the assignment. I am a student of plus two science group.
thank u sooooo much 😀 i m so happy u gguys rock !!! saying this from the bottom of my heart !!!!!!!
This site really helped in finding the projects!
Thanks for helping me out here!
THIS SITE IS VERY MUCH HELPFUL FOR FINDING SOME PROJECTS ,I LIKE IT VERY MUCH…………!!!!!!!!!
Hey!!! I want a project on presences of nickel in different chocolates…..
plz help me out…… I cant find it out…..
Thank u sir ……u r doing a grt job ….
good site. good material saves time
thankuuuuuuuuuuu soooooooo much.
u reduced my work load a lot****
presence of zinc sulfate in close up —- project is not there ????
ya really student’s help ful site!!! Hope can include some more topics
sir, can u plz help me .
i need a chemistry project on analysis of caffeine in energy drinks…plz plz plz help me. i am not getting it
I want to make project file based on topic polymers..
please help me in this…
i need a projetc on prence of zinc sufate in close up
as there is along list of project but project which i hav chosen that was not there so plz help me out of it
as soon as possible
thanks a lot…………………
this site is very helpful site for every student………..
This site is really very nice it help me out to choose a good project
Wen it cums 2 project “Heads Off….”^^ but wen i find out this site everything was settle down! Thank u so much 4 all ur contribution and ideas!
its really a dumb of topics…………. useless projects for receieving even a school award………!!!! close up this trashsite…..
wowww……. Thank you ! this site has helped me a lot.
I have to make project on holi colours ? So kindly help me what information I should collect ?
this site proved to be really helpful.
Thanks a lot…..
please help me project on physical properties of amorphous and crystalline solid
plllzzz plzz publish projects for physics if nt den plzz atleast topics!!
I want to make chemistry project …hlp me
i wanna make a chemistry project, i’m in 12th standard please suggest me some options my contact no. is 9718484208
Realy i appreciate this page for supplying us with project topic & thier solution
thank you chemist i am your follower(young chemist)
I also. agree. all of. u guy’s.
this. project are. best. on that. website
I liked the concept of this website. keep it up..
can anyone help me to write a project on chemistry .
nice one so that i can score good marks
my email id : [email protected]
if anyone want to help me text
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