Chemistry Projects

Notes :

  • Projects are available in one click download in ZIP format.(WinZip)
  • Projects are available in PDF format inside archive.(Acrobat Reader)
  • All projects are contributed by students, click here if you want to send yours.

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Estimation of Content of Bone Ash

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Green Chemistry: Bio-Diesel and Bio-Petrol

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Sterilization of Water using Bleaching Powder

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Analysis of Fertilizers

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Measuring Solubility of Saturated Solutions

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project To Study the Setting of Cement

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Measure the Amount of Acetic Acid in Vinegar

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Determination of Contents of Cold Drinks

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Preparation of Potash Alum

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Study of Diffusion of solids in Liquids

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Study the Rate of Diffusion

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Variation of Conductance in Electrolytes

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Spectroscopy

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to To Determine which Antacid Neutralizes Stomach Acid Most

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Study the Quantity of Caesin in Milk

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Determine the Caffeine in Tea Samples

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Study the Adulterants in Food

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Preparation of Potash Alum

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Study the Constituents of an Alloy

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Presence of Insecticides & Pesticides in Fruits & Vegetables

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Study the Change in EMF of a Daniel Cell

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Prepare Rayon Threads From Filter Paper

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Compare the Foaming Capacity of Soaps

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Preparation of Soyabean Milk

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Study of Rate of Fermentation of Juices

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Metal coupling in rusting of Iron

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Electrolysis of Potassium Iodide (KI)

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Compare Rate of Fermentation

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Fatty Material of Different Soap Samples

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Extraction of Essential Oil from Aniseed

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Analysis of Cold Drinks

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Preparation of Pigments and Poster Paints

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Formation Of Biodiesel

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Antacids

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project on Evaporation of Liquid

Chemistry Projects Chemistry Project to Study Effect of Metal Coupling on Corrosion

63 Responses to Chemistry Projects

  1. samridhi says:

    thank you…! dis site helped me alot..:D

  2. samridhi says:

    thank you…! dis site helped me alot..:D N I AM REALLY SATISFIED…FRM IT..:)

  3. BIKRAM says:

    I m very much happy that I have found this site.

  4. shivani kashyap says:

    i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me some good topics for it

  5. Nikhil singh says:

    sir thanks a lot for publishing this site is very helpful for student.

  6. chimy dorjy says:

    project work on study constituents of alloys

  7. rabia khan says:

    this site is really very helpful for class 12 students to score good marks in their topics with such a good content.

  8. Sanjana says:

    thank u sir dis syt hs helpd me a lot n hs given gr8 chnce 4 da students 2 score gud in 12th board..:D

    • Hannah Mckay says:

      ok first of all, your chemistry may be good, but your english needs a lot of professional help. why dont you go get a dictionary before you embarass yourself on websites like these. secondly, projects only constitute 3 marks in the board practicals. your situation is so bad that you desperately need those?! all i can say is, good luck my friend. you need it.

      • mehak says:

        i would like to inform you that we have 20 marks weightage for practicals in our boards and all our internal marks depend on the kind of project we submit.
        so the girl above has a good reason to worry. :)

        well…thankyou for this site…the projects are good.

      • syedah mahrukh says:

        Omgg that was a way tight slap on her face! Seriously he/she needs to improve his/her english skills! I agree with you Hannah Mckay ! Better improve it because this was way to embarrasing and seriously this site helped me so good and i got a way better concept about Chemistry :)

      • HannahIsCrazy says:

        Embarrass, my dear Hannah. Why don’t you get a dictionary yourself?

      • Anonymous says:

        Well, 3 marks are not an insignificant number. Btw, she has most probably typed from a mobile phone. Anyways, if she feels its helping her a lot, why not we just leave it at that?

      • D. Morgan says:

        well said

      • somya sharma says:

        hannah or whatever ..why do u hve to put ur nose in other’s business …bloody attention seekers ..oh congo u drove my attention towards ur retarded comment …GET A LIFE

      • Yash kumar says:

        hello not 3 marks but a huge 30 marks.

      • Stuti says:

        Wow, you really had the calliber to pin point faults and judge people over the internet based.on their language skills. I mean who even does that? Oh and those 3 marks are like a really big deal for us in case you were so ignorant while doing your research about boards before posting the comment. I’m sorry if this seemed really weird to you but please stop intimidating people over the internet bc that is obviously such a sloppy thing to do. If you don’t like certain comments, ignore them bc that’s what most of us do rather than making people feel worse about themselves. This is probably a potential cyber crime. So please stop it.

      • Someone Actually says:

        Woah, calm down you know! And going by the comment that you’ve written, you might be in need of English Tutions as well. :)

      • jaidev yadav says:

        She is using shortform that doesn’t mean she didn’t know English . also, project is complusory for all . u can’t estimate the condtion of student from this thing .

  9. Spandana says:

    Thank u
    this project helped me a lot

  10. asha Baloria says:

    thanks .these project help me lot

  11. chimi dorji says:

    i would be very much thankful.if sir/madame could give project on study of constituents of alloys.

  12. Aravindh says:

    I want to prepare bio diesel

    • sharda singh says:

      really this site helped me a lot. keep going like this and post some more goood projects

    • edu says:

      INDEX S.No. Contents Pg.No. I Objective 5 II Introduction to green chemistry 6 III Principals of green chemistry 7 IV BIODIESEL: Using renewable resorces 10 V ACTIVITY 1: Making biodiesel 12 VI ACTIVITY 2: Testing biodiesel 14 VII ACTIVITY 3: Potential for biofuels 16 VIII Biopetrol 23 IX Conclution 30 X Bibliography 31 The Objective of this project is to study GREEN CHEMISTRY- Bio diesel and Bio petrol also study extraction process of Bio desial. INTRODUCTION TO GREEN CHEMISTY . Green chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with developing processes and products to reduce or eliminate hazardous substances. One of the goals of green chemistry is to prevent pollution at its source, as opposed to dealing with pollution after it has occurred. Principles of Green Chemistry 1. Prevention It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created. 2. Atom Economy Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product. 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment. 4. Designing Safer Chemicals Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimizing their toxicity. 5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used. 6. Design for Energy Efficiency Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. 7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable. 8. Reduce Derivatives Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection,temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. 9. Catalysis Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents. 10. Design for Degradation Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment. 11. Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, inprocess monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. 12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases,explosions, and fires. Biodiesel: using renewable resources Introduction Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils (edible or non- edible oil) and animal fats. These natural oils and fats are made up mainly of triglycerides. These triglycerides when rea w striking similarity to petroleum derived diesel and are called “Bio-diesel”. As India is deficient in edible oils, non-edible oil may be material of choice for producing bio diesel . For this purpose Jatropha curcas considered as most potential source for it. Bio diesel is produced by transesterification of oil obtains from the plant. Jatropha Curcas has been identified for India as the most suitable Tree Borne Oilseed (TBO) for production of bio-diesel both in view of the non-edible oil available from it and its presence throughout the country. The capacity of Jatropha Curcas to rehabilitate degraded or dry lands, from which the poor mostly derive their sustenance, by improving land’s water retention capacity, makes it additionally suitable for up-gradation of land resources. Presently, in some Indian villages, farmers are extracting oil from Jatropha and after settling and decanting it they are mixing the filtered oil with diesel fuel. Although, so far the farmers have not observed any damage to their machinery, yet this remains to be tested and PCRA is working on it. The fact remains that this oil needs to be converted to bio-diesel through a chemical reaction – trans-esterification. This reaction is relatively simple and does not require any exotic material. IOC (R&D) has been using a laboratory scale plant of 100 kg/day capacity for trans-esterification; designing of larger capacity plants is in the offing. These large plants are useful for centralized production of bio-diesel. Production of bio-diesel in smaller plants of capacity e.g. 5 to 20 kg/day may also be started at decentralized level. Activity 1: Making biodiesel Biodiesel is a mixture of methyl esters of fatty acids (long chain carboxylic acids). It has similar properties to the diesel fuel made from crude oil that is used to fuel many vehicles. It can be made easily from vegetable cooking oil that contains compounds of fatty acids. Enough fuel can be produced in this activity to burn in a later activity, although it is not pure enough to actually be used as fuel in a car or lorry. The synthesis is a simple chemical reaction that produces biodiesel and propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol). Cooking oil is mixed with methanol and potassium hydroxide is added as a catalyst. The products separate into two layers, with the biodiesel on the top. The biodiesel is separated and washed, and is then ready for further experimentation. What you will need Eye protection Access to a top pan balance One 250 cm3 conical flask Two 100 cm3 beakers One 100 cm3 measuring cylinder Five plastic teat pipettes Distilled or deionised water 100 cm3 vegetable-based cooking oil 15 cm3 methanol (highly flammable, toxic by inhalation, if swallowed, and by skin absorption) 1 cm3 potassium hydroxide solution 50% (corrosive). Safety Wear eye protection. Methanol is flammable and poisonous. Potassium hydroxide is corrosive. What to do Measure 100 cm3 of vegetable oil into the 250 cm3 flask. Weigh the flask before and after to determine the mass of oil you used. Carefully add 15 cm3 of methanol. Slowly add 1 cm3 of 50% potassium hydroxide. Stir or swirl the mixture for 10 minutes. Allow the mixture to stand until it separates into two layers. Carefully remove the top layer (this is impure biodiesel) using a teat pipette. Wash the product by shaking it with 10 cm3 of distilled or deionised water. Allow the mixture to stand until it separates into two layers. Carefully remove the top layer of biodiesel using a teat pipette. Weigh the amount of biodiesel you have collected and compare it to the amount of vegetable oil you started with. Apparatus for testing biodiesel Activity 2: Testing biodiesel How does biodiesel compare to other fuels? Just because we can produce a fuel from an alternative source, does that mean it is a good idea? There are many factors that go into the decision to use alternative fuels. Ideally the physical properties of an alternative fuel should equal or exceed those of the traditional product. But how are fuels evaluated in the first place. In this activity, biodiesel and some other fuels are tested and compared for sootiness and acidity. What you will need Eye protection Small glass funnel (approximately 7 cm diameter) One 250 cm3 flask Two boiling tubes One two-hole stopper to fit the boiling tubes Filter pump A piece of wide bore glass tubing approximately 10 cm long with two one-hole stoppers to fit A piece of vacuum tubing approximately 35 cm long Two short pieces of glass tubing to fit the one-hole stoppers 5 cm glass bend to fit the two-hole stopper 90o glass bend to fit the two-hole stopper (one leg to extend to bottom of flask) Two stands and clamps Two small metal sample dishes A little sodium hydroxide solution 0.1 mol dm-3 (irritant) Universal indicator solution A little mineral wool. Safety Wear eye protection. Take care if you have to insert glass tubing into the stoppers yourself. Make sure that your teacher shows you the correct technique. What to do Pour 125 cm3 of distilled water into the 250 cm3 flask and add 10 cm3 of universal indicator. Add one drop of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution and gently swirl the flask so that the colour of the solution is violet or at the most basic end of the universal indicator colour range. Place 10 cm3 of this solution into the boiling tube. Assemble the apparatus illustrated in Figure 1, attaching it to the filter pump with the vacuum tubing. Place 2 cm3 of biodiesel onto a wad of mineral wool in the metal sample cup. Turn on the water tap so the filter pump pulls air through the flask and ignite the biodiesel. Position the funnel directly over the burning fuel, so as to capture the fumes from the burning fuel. Mark or note the position of the tap handle so you can run the pump at the same flow rate later in the experiment. Allow the experiment to run until the universal indicator turns yellow and time how long this takes. Record what happens in the funnel and in the glass tube containing the second piece of mineral wool. Clean the apparatus, and repeat the experiment using 2 cm3 of kerosene (this is very similar to diesel fuel). Activity 3: Potential for biofuels 1.Technical Feasibility Can be blended in any ratio with petro-diesel Existing storage facilities and infrastructure for petro-diesel can be used with minor alteration. From environment and emissions point of view it is superior to petro-diesel. It can provide energy security to remote and rural areas. It has good potential for employment generation 2.Sources of Bio-diesel All Tree Bearing Oil (TBO) seeds – edible and non edible Edible: Soya-bean, Sun-flower, Mustard Oil etc. Non-edible: Jatropha Curcas, Pongemia Pinnata, Neem etc. Edible seeds can’t be used for bio-diesel production in our country, as its indigenous production does not meet our current demand. Among non-edible TBO, Jatropha Curcas has been identified as the most suitable seed for India. 3.Advantages of Jatropha Jatropha Curcas is a widely occurring variety of TBO It grows practically all over India under a variety of agro climatic conditions. Can be grown in arid zones (20 cm rainfall) as well as in higher rainfall zones and even on the land with thin soil cover. Its plantation can be taken up as a quick yielding plant even in adverse land situations viz. degraded and barren lands under forest and non-forest use, dry and drought prone areas, marginal lands, even on alkaline soils and as agro-forestry crops. It grows as a tree up to the height of 3 – 5 mt. It is a good plantation for Eco-restoration in all types wasteland. 4.Agro Practices (as per NOVOD, Ministry of Agriculture, GOI) Nursery raising Nurseries may be raised in poly-bags filled with mixture of soil and farm yard manure in the ratio of 4:1. Two seeds are sown in each bag. Plantation 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm pits are dug Farm yard manure (2-3 kg), 20 gm urea, 12 gm Single Super Phosphate (SSP) & 16 gm Mono Phosphate (MP) Planting density 2500 plants / ha at 2m x 2m Transplantation It should be done during rainy reason. Fertilizer From second year in the ratio of 40:60:20 Nitrogen Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) kg/ha Irrigation It is required only for the first two years Pruning During first year when branches reach a height of 40-60 cms Pest & Disease control No disease or insects noticed to be harmful Flowering and fruiting Flowering: Sept.- Dec. & March- April Fruiting After 2 months of flowering. 5.State-wise area undertaken by NOVOD for Jatropha Plantation State Area (ha) Andhra Pradesh 44 Bihar 10 Chhatisgarh 190 Gujarat 240 Haryana 140 Karnataka 80 Madhya Pradesh 260 Maharashtra 150 Mizoram 20 Rajasthan 275 Tamil Nadu 60 Uttaranchal 50 Uttar Pradesh 200 Economics (as per Planning Commission Report on Bio-fuels, 2003) Activities Rate(Rs. / Kg) Quantity(Kg) Cost(Rs.) Seed 5.00 3.28 16.40 Cost of collection & oil extraction 2.36 1.05 2.48 Less cake produced 1.00 2.23 (-) 2.23 Trans-esterification 6.67 1.00 6.67 Less cost of glycerin produced 40 to 60 0.095 (-) 3.8 to 5.7 Cost of Bio-diesel per kg 19.52 to 17.62 Cost of Bio-diesel per litre (Sp. Gravity 0.85) 16.59 to 14.98 7. Employment potential (as per Planning Commission report on bio-fuels, 2003)) Likely demand of petro diesel by 2006-07 will be 52 MMT and by 2011-12 it will increase to 67 MMT. 5% blend of Bio-diesel with petro diesel will require 2.6 MMT of Bio-diesel in 2006-07 By 2011-12, for 20% blend with Petro-diesel, the likely demand will be 13.4 MMT. To meet the requirement of 2.6 MMT of bio-diesel, plantation of Jatropha should be done on 2.2 – 2.6 million ha area. 11.2 – 13.4 million ha of land should be covered by 2011 – 12 for 20% bio-diesel blending It will generate following no. of jobs in following areas. Year No. of jobs in plantation In maintenance Operation of BD units 2006-07 2.5 million 0.75 million 0.10 million 2011-12 13.0 million 3.9 million 0.30 million Oil content 35% to 40% Collection and processing Ripe fruits collected from trees. 8. Efforts of National Oilseed and Vegetable Oil Development Board (NOVOD) Systematic state/region wise survey for identification of superior trees and superior seeds. Maintenance of record on seeds/trees. Samples of high yield to be sent to National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) for accession and cryo-preservation. NOVOD has developed improved Jatropha seeds, which have oil contents up to 1.5 times of ordinary seeds. However, being in short supply, initially these improved Jatropha seeds would be supplied only to Agricultural Universities for multiplication and development. After multiplication these would be supplied to different states for further cultivation. This program is likely to take 3 – 4 years. It is also working for development of multi-purpose post-harvest technology tools like decorticator and de-huller, which would further improve oil recovery. 9. Trans-esterification Process Vegetable Oil Alcohol Catalyst(Sodium or Potassiu m Hydroxide) Glycerin(Used for medicinal value) Bio-diesel 100 gm 12 gm 1 gm 11 gm 95 gm It is the displacement of alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a similar process to hydrolysis. Vegetable Oil i.e. the triglyceride can be easily trans-esterified in the presence of alkaline catalyst at atmospheric pressure and at temperature of approximately 60 to 70oC with an excess of methanol. If 100 gm of vegetable oil is taken, 1 gm of the alkaline catalyst (Potassium Hydroxide), and 12 gm of Methanol would be required As a first step, the alkaline catalyst is mixed with methanol and the mixture is stirred for half an hour for its homogenization. This mixture is mixed with vegetable oil and the resultant mixture is made to pass through reflux condensation at 65oC. The mixture at the end is allowed to settle. The lower layer will be of glycerin and it is drain off. The upper layer of bio-diesel (a methyl ester) is washed to remove entrained glycerin. The excess methanol recycled by distillation. This reaction works well with high quality oil. If the oil contains 1% Free Fatty Acid (FFA), then difficulty arises because of soap formation. If FFA content is more than 2% the reaction becomes unworkable. Methanol is inflammable and Potassium Hydroxide is caustic, hence proper and safe handling of these chemicals are must. 10. Agencies & Institutes working in the field of bio-diesel National Oil seeds and Vegetable Oil Board, Gurgaon PCRA – Petroleum Conservation Research Association (MOP&NG) IOC (R&D) Centre, Faridabad Delhi College of Engineering IIT, Delhi IIP, Dehradun Downstream National Oil Companies Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad CSIR Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources Central Pollution Control Board Bureau of Indian Standards Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency States, which have made some lead Uttranchal: Uttaranchal Bio-fuel Board (UBB) has been constituted as a nodal agency for bio-diesel promotion in the state. Has undertaken Jatropha plantation in an area of 1 lakh hectare. UBB has established Jatropha Gene Bank to preserve high yielding seed varieties. Has ambitious plan to produce 100 million liters of bio-diesel. Andhra Pradesh: Govt. of AP (GoAP) to encourage Jatropha plantation in 10 rain shadow districts of AP Task force for it has been constituted at district and state level GoAP proposed Jatropha cultivation in 15 lakh acres in next 4 years Initial target is 2 lakh acres Irrigation to be dovetailed with Jatropha cultivation 90% drip subsidy is proposed Jatropha cultivation to be taken up only in cultivable lands with existing farmers. Crop and yield insurance is proposed Chhattisgarh: 6 lakh saplings of Jatropha have been planted with the involvement of State’s Forest, Agriculture, Panchayat and Rural Development Departments As per the Deputy Chairman, State Planning Board, the state has the target to cover 1 million ha of land under Jatropha plantation Ten reputed bio-diesel companies, including the UK-based D1 Oils, have offered to set up Jatropha oil-extraction units or to buy the produce from farmers in Chhattisgarh. Companies like Indian Oil, Indian Railways and Hindustan Petroleum have each deposited Rs 10 lakh as security for future MoUs with the state government. 11. Farmers’ Initiatives in Haryana Farmers in Haryana have formed NGOs and cooperatives for promotion of Jatropha plantation. These NGOs and cooperatives are raising nurseries for Jatropha plantation and supplying saplings to others for further cultivation. They have been blending directly Jatropha Oil into diesel fuel and successfully using this blend in their tractors and diesel engines without any problems. These NGOs and cooperatives are also organizing the practical demonstration of this usage in their demonstration workshops. They are organizing local seminars, workshops and conferences etc. to promote the usage of Jatropha oil. NGOs have also printed some booklets on Jatropha plantation. 12. Current usages of bio-diesel / Trials & testing of bio-diesel Usages of bio-diesel are similar to that of petro-diesel Shatabadi Express was run on 5% blend of bio-diesel from Delhi to Amritsar on 31st Dec. 2002 in association with IOC. Field trials of 10% bio-diesel blend were also done on Lucknow-Allahabad Jan Shatabdi Express also through association with IOC. HPCL is also carrying out field trials in association with BEST Bio-Diesel blend from IOC (R&D) is being used in buses in Mumbai as well as in Rewari, in Haryana on trial basis . CSIR and Daimler Chrysler have jointly undertaken a successful 5000 km trial run of Mercedes cars using bio-diesel as fuel. NOVOD has initiated test run by blending 10% bio diesel in collaboration with IIT, Delhi in Tata Sumo & Swaraj Mazda vehicles. BIO-PETROL Introduction Measures to be implemented to resolve the problem of sewage sludge that contain a high degree of organic matter could primarily aim at recycling it through a thermo chemical pyrolysis process in order to recover hydrocarbons that make up the structure of sewage sludge. Pyrolysis of sewage sludge produces oil, gas and char products. The pyrolysis oils have also been shown to contain valuable chemicals in significant concentrations and hence may have the potential to be used as chemical feedstock. The production of a liquid product increases the ease of handling, storage and transport. The technology, improved by BioPetrol Ltd. (patent pending) is capable of processing carbon wastes, other than sewage sludge, including agri-wastes, bagasse, pulp and paper residues, tannery sludge and other end-of-life products such as plastics, tires and the organics in municipal solid waste.The process of low temperature thermochemical conversion of municipal sewage sludge to oil is a new technology in developed countries. The amount of investment is still less than the amount invested in the sewage sludge incineration process, and the operational economy of the process is obviously superior to incineration. The BioPetrol, Ltd. integrated thermochemical process (patent pending) recovers about 1,100,000 Kcal from each 283 kg of sewage sludge 90% D.S. after the thermal evaporating of 717kg water from each dewatered ton (1,000 kg) of sewage sludge 26% D.S. The BioPetrol process begins with sewage sludge at 90% D.S. Sewage sludge drying equipment is used commonly for the evaporative removal of interstitial water from the sludge. Numerous drying technologies exist on the market. Market Analysis and Strategy Three potential products/services: 1. Disposal of Sewage Sludge – Disposal of sewage sludge comprises over 30% of wastewater treatment plants’ budget. Customers of this service are local communities. They are willing to pay top dollar for the disposal of their sludge. For example: Holland $50-$90 per ton, U.S., Canada and Australia, up to $150 per ton. The US produces 25 million tons of sludge annually (2001). 2. Synthetic Crude Oil – Excess crude oil, beyond what is being recirculated to run equipment A+B is about 30 kg per 1 ton sewage sludge 90% D.S. Oil energy = 8,900 Kcal/kg same as diesel oil used in heavy industry. There are references in professional literature to numerous valuable chemicals in significant concentration that are present in pyrolysis oils. BioPetrol Ltd has on board, as a shareholder, an internationally renowned scientist-academician to address this issue. 3. Selling the Technology – With the completion of the development of the process and equipment for its operation, BioPetrol. Ltd. will have the technology to sell to world markets. Potential markets are water authorities, municipalities, wastewater treatment plants, entrepreneurs, sewage sludge disposal contractors, sludge drying operators. BioPetrol, ltd. has been awarded a grant of $300,000 for a period of 2 years by Israel’s Office of the Chief Scientist to conduct advanced R&D. The company has concluded and proved the viability of the process and is now on the verge of constructing a demonstration pilot for a continuous process. BioPetrol is seeking an investment of US$400,000 for the completion of the demonstration pilot. A business plan is available for further details. Technology The technological processes at issue in the Bio-Petrol project belong to the sphere of liquefying carbon-rich solid fuels. The liquefaction processes common today comprise two stages: 1. Thermal breakdown of the molecular structure to create radical fractions different in size. 2. Stabilization of the radicals by recombining themselves or by redistribution of hydrogen from the raw material itself or by hydrogen that is introduced from outside (molecular hydrogen or from hydrogen-donor matter). Bio-Petrol Company has carried out R&D work which has resulted in the formulation of a suitable process for producing synthetic oil from sewage sludge with larger output than that obtained from the common process-i.e. pyrolysis. By integrating familiar liquefaction methods the company developed a process of high utilization of the organic matter that is in the sewage sludge that produces oil and gas in larger quantities and of better quality. What is Ethanol? Ethanol is part of a category of molecules called alcohols. The simplest alcohol is called methanol and is very similar to a compound called methane. Methane is a molecule composed of one carbon atom surrounded by 4 hydrogen atoms. In methanol, one of these hydrogen atoms is replaced with an oxygen atom with a hydrogen atom attached to it. This two atom group, oxygen attached to a hydrogen, is called an alcohol group. Any molecule that has an alcohol group attached to it can be called an alcohol. To make it easier to talk about, chemists add an “ol” on the end of a chemicals name to indicate that it has an alcohol group. Therefore, methane with an alcohol group attached is called methanol. For ethanol, it is an ethane molecule –two carbon atoms, with six hydrogen atoms surrounding them—with one hydrogen replaced by an alcohol group. Then, the name ethane is changed to ethanol, to indicate that it is an alcohol. How Ethanol is Made Ethanol has been used by humans for thousands of years, in part because it is easy to make. In fact, nature can make it for us in a process called fermentation. Fermentation is a biochemical process carried out by microscopic organisms called yeast. Yeast are anaerobic, meaning they can live and eat without needing oxygen. Many living things eat sugar, and yeast eat sugar too. When there is no oxygen, yeast chow down on sugar, but they can’t get all of the energy that is available in sugar out of it. Instead they use it to get some energy, and in the process of digesting it, convert it into ethanol and carbon dioxide Petrol. Yeast are even used to make bread. When making bread, bakers use the yeasts ability to make carbon dioxide Petrol to make the bread rise, making it thicker. If it were not for yeast, pizza dough would be flatter than a pancake. Scientists have also invented ways to make ethanol synthetically, without utilizing nature’s help. The process converts a byproduct of making Petrololine into ethanol. Although this process is used, more than 90% of the ethanol produced per year is made using yeast. Replacing Petrololine with Corn? Yeast only consume simple sugars, so only certain foods are good for putting them to work making ethanol. Bakers use the sugar that you can find in your kitchen. But it takes a lot of kitchen sugar to fill the tank of your car with ethanol. Some countries, such as Brazil, that grow a lot of sugar use it to make ethanol for cars. Brazil has been producing ethanol fuels for decades. The United States does not have enough sugar cane plants to do this. Instead, the U.S. has focused on using corn. Corn has less sugar in it than sugar cane, requiring scientists to develop ways to convert corn’s more complex sugars into simple sugars. Critics of using corn for fuel say that it takes more energy to make ethanol from corn than it takes to make regular Petrololine. However, a recent review of many different studies in the American Chemical Society journal, Environmental Science and Technology, suggests that in most cases, using corn would still save us from using as much fossil fuels as we would if we just used Petrololine. Sticks, husks, and grass to Ethanol? A new method is being developed that may be even more promising than using corn or sugar cane as yeast food. All plants make a complex sugar called cellulose and it is one of the most abundant plant materials on earth. Cotton is almost all cellulose, and some forms of cellulose can be found in many of the foods that we eat. Trees have it. Grass has it. Even corn stalks. But yeast don’t eat cellulose. Recently several groups of researchers have developed enzymes, which are complex molecules that operate like little machines, to break apart cellulose into simple sugars that the yeast can eat. What makes this very interesting is that farms and other industries already produce tons and tons of waste materials that contain cellulose. Just imagine, all the sticks and grass clippings from your yard or playground could be turned into fuel for your car. Farms can also grow plants for making ethanol. President George W. Bush mentioned one of these, switch grass, in the 2006 State of the Union address. Therefore, farms or timber companies can convert their waste into ethanol. There is also one additional benefit, and challenge to processing cellulose. Cellulose is often stuck together with another plant compound called lignin. Lignins are compounds that make plants strong, and they trap cellulose. Lignins are one of the waste products of papermaking. But, lignin materials extracted from waste materials used for making ethanol can be burned to power the process, saving more fossil fuels. It’s not a question of if we will stop using oil but when. Soon, we will all have to replace oil with a different, renewable source and ethanol may be the answer.

      Read more at: http://projects.icbse.com/chemistry-457

  13. SONAL SINGH says:

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  14. tejas says:

    This website contain very useful data, and also help to improve the very thgeneral knowledge. Thank you very much to introduse this website.

  15. Q. Electrochemstry as ambling Project’s

  16. kendrick solomon says:

    nice.. but not so good (0.O)

  17. rajan goyal says:

    really this site is very helpful for student of class 12th

  18. rishabh chak says:

    The experimets in this site are good but there are not the projects for the exhibutions or the bigger project.//////////////////////////////////////////////

  19. amrita says:

    yipee…!!! d site helped a lot to statisfy the teacher n ofcourseme too… thanq…

  20. Jaafar says:

    AWESOME
    Helped a lot

  21. srilekha p nambiar says:

    thankyou soo much!!!!!!this website is really very useful!!!!

  22. thankyou soo much!!!!!!this website is really very helpful!!!!!!!!1

  23. V@!b}{@V says:

    Thanx a lot…
    I was very tensed for my chem project but this site helped me …
    :):):):):):):)

  24. hemant bagul says:

    nice wabsite

  25. Varun says:

    This website is a boon for students

  26. Ankit bhardwaj says:

    guyz i hav to make project on biology…….can u suggest me some of the topics which are easy………….
    i will be greatly thnkful 2 u……

  27. alisha says:

    all projects are given here xcpt mine study effect of potassium bisulphite as food preservativ under various conditions………cn anyone help me plzzzzz

  28. alisha says:

    plzz help me as soon as possible

  29. Nancy says:

    Sir/madam i would be truely greatful if u could help me with a project on the determination of mass percentage of oil from different oilseeds

  30. Nancy says:

    The informatio shared here is worth apperiatiation

  31. syam says:

    dis helped me a lot……

  32. Ishita says:

    This site makes it very convenient for the student to perform experiments or benefit from someone else’s research.
    I am quite satisfied!
    Thank you.

  33. Vinay says:

    Really, Very helpful site…

  34. chandra says:

    i very sad that my topic is not there

  35. mishmi paul says:

    i want to do water analysis..bt it is not available

  36. SHOURYA says:

    COPIED PROJECTS…………………….
    STOP COPYING……………
    THESE are some OF THE WORK OF BONAFIDE STUDENTS

  37. shivangi says:

    thanks alot! this is really great..! direct copy in d book! :D ;)

  38. pravanshi says:

    useless site.. I’ll never visit dis again :(

  39. rahul says:

    i need more topics on chemistry projects which are simple and all their contents are easily available. Please

  40. Mudit says:

    such a useful i got thank for this site.

  41. VIGNESH BALAJI E says:

    ya its nice i really benified by using this page…

  42. rishabh says:

    this site is very useful for me……because i have complete my project through this site

  43. Sanjana says:

    Thanks this site is very useful for class 12 students to score well in their boards..Thanks a lot…:D

  44. rahul joshi says:

    Great site

  45. Chinmay Patil says:

    Its Nice Website. Thanks to introduce this Website

  46. Kriti says:

    This is an awsome site for students
    Helps a lot in making projects

  47. RAO DINESH says:

    A VERY HELPFUL SITE ……………TTTHHHAAANNNKKKsssssssssss…………..

  48. samar singh says:

    This site is really helpful for us

  49. sachin says:

    helped me a lot bt wanted mre on analysis…

  50. sachin says:

    wanted more on salt anaylsis

  51. Maansi says:

    very useful information been given on dis site .thank u !!!!!

  52. shubham says:

    I want a chemistry project on study the effect of potassium bisulphite as food preservatieve under various conditions.
    where is it no one made that one

  53. srishtika says:

    thanks for helping me in work thank u soo much

  54. ARVIND SAPREY says:

    PROJECTWORK-(1)Preparation of ferric hydroxide sol,(2)To compare cleanig capacity of soaps,(3)To analyse fruit and vegetable extract,EXPERIMENT-To study digestion of starch by saliva (I WANT THIS ALL PROJECTS PDF PLEASE SEND THIS PROJECTS PDF IN MY EMAIL ID)

  55. gyan says:

    this is a good website to,find out information about many topics of chemistry to make projects…….
    so,this is a good website,fiind out the infos.

  56. Mishti Gupta says:

    no related information about medicinal chemistry is provided here

  57. Anshul Rathore says:

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  58. PRAJIT SINGH says:

    This site helped me a lot………….thanx!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  59. Saloni says:

    cool projects..thank u sooo much..!! :)

  60. shiwang says:

    please anyone oxalate ion ka daldo yaar

  61. BHAVANA NAYANA says:

    dis site helped us a lot . thank u

  62. lili says:

    i want to make a project for chemistry class .please suggest me some good topics for it

    specially with enviromental contents to help students survive their own city or town. besides this website is really helpful for the students thanks.

  63. rajat says:

    nice 1 but information for is 2 short

  64. Dhriti Mohan Sarma says:

    Can anybody suggest a project on biology

  65. Pramod Mawaskar says:

    Tanks this for site.

  66. Avinash says:

    Thank you..

  67. Natalie says:

    Toooooooooo good :)

  68. nithin says:

    this site helped me a lot to complete my 12th standard project of chemistry

  69. aditya tulaskar says:

    wow..!!!
    it’s really great……

  70. pratibha says:

    plz sugest proj on differenttypes of indicators use in volumetric analysis

  71. thank you. This has helped me complete the chemistry project soon.

  72. SAJID KHAN says:

    really this site help a lot …………….. than you sir

  73. please can anybody suggest me chemistry project.

  74. Priyanka says:

    Sir/mam can u pls suggest me a project on electrochemical cells and batteries

  75. Priyanka says:

    Sir/mam pls suggest me the project on electrochemical cells and batteries

  76. aakash says:

    thumbs up to this site….

  77. Sunita Prabhudessai says:

    Thank you… this site helped me a lot.I was able to do good and easy project.

  78. koushal ahuja says:

    this is a nice stuff n helped me alot…

  79. Sanjay bharti says:

    Its really helpfull for students

  80. this site helps me alot!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    THANS

  81. Shubham mehra says:

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  82. Pranjali says:

    Thank u….. this has really helped me a lot…..

  83. rahul says:

    saala kuch ni milta yahan pr bakvaas site h

  84. suhana says:

    i couldnt find anything on this site…..-_-

  85. Aman manjhi says:

    i like this site very much it help me a lot in my project

  86. dipak nemade says:

    I m very much happy that I have found this site.i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me some good topics for itu make project on ‘and gate’ it is very easysir thanks a lot for publishing this site is very helpful for student.

  87. dipak nemade says:

    I m very much happy that I have found this site.i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me some good topics for itu make project on ‘and gate’ it is very easysir thanks a lot for publishing this site is very helpful for student. sooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo gooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooood

  88. sumidha says:

    thanku very much this website helps me a lot….

  89. octane says:

    I am thankful,for whoever created this site

  90. Shankar Devkate says:

    This website is very usefull for chemistry project

  91. vaishnavi says:

    thanks for this site

  92. gujjar khrana says:

    i m very gradeful n satisful with it

  93. mohit says:

    project on study of effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservatives under various condition (temperature ,time,concentration)

  94. laxmi rexwal says:

    this website is very helpful m feeling lucky thanx

  95. TARENI says:

    this site very useful to me as well as other XII students.

  96. akshay says:

    information gives more knowledge

  97. akshay pawar says:

    this site very helpful

  98. akshay pawar says:

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  99. akshay pawar says:

    information about the topic is giving knowledge about that

  100. Alisha Raj says:

    This website is awesum….. bt plz write the observation for the project..TO STUDY THE QUANTITY OF CAESIN PRESENT IN MILK……

  101. rakesh says:

    nice project

  102. Diksha Khosla says:

    thanks a lot :)

  103. shreya singh says:

    the site helped me a lot

  104. NARSINGH GAUTAM says:

    chemistry project is the most important project for the 12th class student.

  105. rahul maurya says:

    how to download it is only for read,,,,…….

  106. Radha says:

    this site is useless for me

  107. Holly says:

    I m very much thankful 2 ds webside. I get a good project of preparing bio-diesel…..

  108. priya says:

    plz suggest me good topics for chemistry project…………….

  109. priya says:

    as soon as possible…

  110. prince pandey says:

    nyc collection

  111. gaurav singh says:

    can you plzzzzzz provide a project on to analyse presence of cation, anion & carbohydrate in a sample of honey

  112. Renuka says:

    THANKXXXXXXXXX…….

  113. Renuka says:

    It’s so cool & so helpful

  114. anchal says:

    this site is damn awesome….nd it helped me alot…thanx a bunch

  115. Roshan Shelke says:

    Thanks… for help …..

  116. Khan Nafeesa says:

    this site is awesome , it really works , thanks to administrator

  117. kusum jaiswal says:

    thanxx alot sir…its very useful site….

  118. kamlesh meena says:

    this site help me lote

  119. amrita says:

    really wonderfull to hav ready made projects,cool it saves time… thankeww

  120. I am very happy… This site help me lot…..:-)

  121. azhar says:

    this is golden place or as like wishing tree here you wanted you shall get 100 percent
    this site helps me a lot……. thanks………

  122. m highly thankful to dis website.

  123. Gunika says:

    Really Appreciable…………….. Helped a lot!!!!!!!!!!!

  124. we want chemistry practical about carohydrates fats protiens in food stuff of class12

  125. Sampat jadhav says:

    Thank you fot the project i am very lucky to visit this site.

  126. anamika verma says:

    the site is really good..but can you also include project to study the ph level & variation in taste of different tea leaves..please

  127. thakur aman singh says:

    i want to make project on the topic of electrochemical cell n eltrolytic cell..plz suggest some main requirements….

  128. nehal says:

    i would be very much thankful.if sir/madame could give project on study of constituents of alloys

  129. abilash says:

    owe u guys a lot.graet site.saves time n helps alot

  130. Sweety kashyap says:

    “This site is very useful for every student”……..

  131. akshay says:

    REALLY impressive website
    WORKS PERFECT WITH GOOD MATERIAL

  132. shivani yadav says:

    ya…its completely helpful….thanxx…

  133. SOORAJ says:

    its so help ful to students like me.please add somemore interesting projects

  134. Ritika chandra says:

    I Want project on biomolecules for class 12

  135. rahul pawar says:

    thank this project me

  136. hafyzyeldu says:

    Please who can help with the materials of this topic;comparative analysis of caffeine contents of some tea leaves,coffee and paracetamol tablets

  137. NISHANT KAUSHIK says:

    thanxxxx!!!! to help me a lot

  138. devanshu says:

    great thanks a lot

  139. Piyush khare says:

    I m vry happy to search thiz site it is very useful our project

  140. fazal says:

    which one is the easiest?

  141. parshuram patil says:

    sir, i want the project name as “determination of boiling point of 1m solution of sugar, glucose, urea, sodium chloride, barium, aluminium chloride. this is most importnat for me so sir, plz send me this project as quick as possible. thanks…..!

  142. sandeep lahande says:

    yes i am very lucky to got this website i need to this website very much , thanking u.

  143. nischal goyal says:

    not at all copied from wiki

  144. akash says:

    it’ a very good site for projects

  145. suraj sawant says:

    thank you…thank you very much …! dis site helped me alot..

  146. sanjeet says:

    thank u for help to find the great projects

  147. Arjun says:

    I am very thankful for these projects , because It helped me to score marks in practical.

  148. TRUNAL SHINDE says:

    This side is really great,it helps me a lot……thanks,v all r thankful 4 this side,thank you SIR/MAM

  149. snehal says:

    thank you so much it is outstanding………………….
    thank you

  150. MANIPAL SINGH says:

    THANK U FOR HELPING…..

  151. guddu says:

    chutiya website hai…sab kuch farji hai

  152. Ankit says:

    can u give upload a project on adsorption,,,,,,,,,,i will very thankfull to u

  153. bahut bakwas site h. isse fail ho jaoge

  154. Piyush tiwari. says:

    these website is one of the best website for student..and these site is fullfilled also..so thank’s for making these type of site.

  155. Ravikant jain says:

    sir i could not found my chemistry project
    the topic isqualitative analysis of tooth power of differents brands

  156. Saksham says:

    Which one to choose from these…… The best of all ???

  157. vipul says:

    very nice websitee..helps me alott..but limited projects of chemistry are available

  158. Rajesh kumar says:

    Really, this site is very useful nd helpful for every science student bcoz all type projects found on this site.

  159. surya kant shukla says:

    Thanku its a nice encouraging site for students

  160. sonia says:

    It is a very helpful site for the future of India. so this is my gratitude towards you all.

  161. rahul yadav says:

    thank you a lot…….!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  162. KARAN GUPTA says:

    Thnkx,This site provides me a lot……………. to know

  163. Bikash kumar singh says:

    This sites proves to be very useful………………………………………………………………..

  164. Bikash kumar singh says:

    This site proves to be very useful…………………….

  165. Prajwal Saluja says:

    how can i find some theory , work for on Noble Gasses Project
    or on which perfect site plz reply on email plzzz prajwalsaluja05@gmail.com
    i urgently need for it…
    thnxx….

  166. MUKUL RAJ says:

    This site is very useful for us i am student of class 12th.
    i contain many good notes.

  167. narender singh says:

    i’m lucky that i found this website

  168. Mohan Nayak says:

    Thankyou , for free projects….This is save time of students …….

  169. Tinu George says:

    really great site

  170. Kanishk Pareek says:

    very very good

  171. Satyam patel says:

    thanx ……alot

  172. saksham says:

    sir ,
    my project is about estimation of iron content in leaves(spinach,mustard and corriander)…….
    can help me for it……??

  173. ankita yadav says:

    dis site has rely held me…..in sugstng di projct…..thnkxxxxx….

  174. ankita yadav says:

    dis site has rely help me…..in sugstng di projct…..thnkxxxxx….

  175. Ikchukwu says:

    The project topics here are wonderful, more grease to your elbows.

  176. Mhara joy says:

    :)tnx for the knowledge

  177. saritha.R says:

    This website helped me to shine in front of my colleagues.thank u .

  178. Bidita Mahapatra says:

    really dis site z mostly helpful 4 chemistry students

  179. thuey says:

    i didnot find this useful!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  180. NEHA SHARMA says:

    its nt jst the help but the quickness & guidance it has provided with…m grateful….

  181. PAWAN KUMAR says:

    this site is very usefull

  182. ma eva says:

    This site had too many interestin data,
    that I live to went in this website to have
    a project on chemistry thanks verymuch

  183. Rajat says:

    Thanks very much………..

  184. prashu says:

    thanks

  185. SHIVANI says:

    thank u this site is really good helped me alot

  186. Egbomeade glory says:

    I am very happy thanks 4 introducing this website

  187. Nikita says:

    Suggest me some good topics for physics project pls reply asap

  188. Nikita says:

    Suggest me some good topics for cbse physics project for 12th class

  189. Aseer says:

    Good place for academic support…….very nice!

  190. imcha says:

    diz reli helpd me a lot! I hav got a detaild info of ol da practicals

  191. Vani says:

    Thnq for the project ideas..it really helped! :)

  192. vidyasree says:

    thnx alot………….

  193. Avinaash Sharma (P.G.T.Chemistry)-9839298000 says:

    A very useful information hasbeen published…..Thanking you a lot….!!

  194. sachin says:

    your attempt is great but implementation has not reached the level . the topics should not only be for the project but should also provide knowledge for the students.and also u should be able to include simple & informative projects from outside.
    then also this is great thing that u have done.hans of 2 u

  195. shivangi says:

    this site is seriously very helpful

  196. raju says:

    nice one

  197. Vineet says:

    very useful projects…………helped me alot……..:-)

  198. SHYAM UDAYARAJU says:

    plz provide a project report gased on analysis of diferent samplesof face powder

  199. sagar says:

    I want a project on percentage of glucose in different sample of biscuits plz send me details as fast as possible

  200. Disha says:

    The information consist on this website is awesome

  201. very nice site so interesting and useful.

  202. Princi mehra says:

    this site is so helpful to me………..!

  203. Daman says:

    This Site is best..it helped me alot…Thank You….:)

  204. prashali says:

    this is best of my life
    thanks a lot//////

  205. maih3 says:

    thnx a lot…dis has been vry helpful nd informative…great job!!!

  206. Nilaksh says:

    sir ………..
    may you please upload a project on detection of poisonous in candies(cheap)…

  207. Hannah Mckay says:

    this website was absolutely no help at all. if you people wanna help students then please give us interesting experiments. all these tests that yu keep talking about, we do in the lab already. so get a life. seriously. and let us also live ours.

  208. Srishti says:

    I need a chemistry investigatory project on ANALYSIS OF TOOTHPASTE

  209. the site provides the users with the cbse class 12 chemistry projects’ topics as well as their information, i.e. helpful in making a project complete. awesome efforts!!!

  210. Raj kumar says:

    Please send me the project early

  211. Anupama says:

    Thanx

  212. m.surya says:

    sir i want to relationship between dance body energy

  213. swati supriya says:

    yup , this is really helpful 4r all ……..

  214. this site is really wonderfull ……

  215. UJJWAL KUMAR SWAIN says:

    IT’S A VERY USEFUL SITE AND HELPED ME A LOT……………………….IT MADE THINGS VERY EASY FOR ME ………THANKS AGAIN ^_^ ^_^

  216. lexzy says:

    I really thank the management of this website along side with the owner of the site for been a saving grace to students.
    The site has really help me alot in my field of studies…. Once again I appreciate your effort.

  217. yash mudgal says:

    diszz a very gud site for studntzzz really helpd meh alot
    m vry thankfull
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  218. eny says:

    this site hlp me really very very
    thnxx

  219. shirees says:

    reaaaaally dis site hlpd mee alot… :)
    bt i need to knw whch is the easist project among dis???
    der s alot of prjcts here….it hlpd….bt iam really cnfused to slct a topc…
    so ny1 pls hlp me :(

  220. vineet says:

    pls help with a project on metallurgy :)

  221. manonmani says:

    thank you so much… it helps me a lot…

  222. jazzy er honey babbu garry says:

    saanu chad k gaira de sang jodn waaliye
    tera vi dil tutna dil todan waliye ni.

  223. AYUSHI says:

    thank you ncert plz make the projects more lengthy……..

  224. prashnat tiwari says:

    which is the best and easy investigatory project ???? please help…

  225. epsha says:

    this site helped me a lot

  226. brahmotni says:

    thanks to he person who ever had posted the projects on the site becoz it hlpd me a lot for completing my project.

  227. prashali says:

    i am very happy and thank u sooooooooo much this site is very amazing:::

  228. Namita Rawat says:

    Awesme site it helpd me a lot.

  229. sukritiupadhyay says:

    this site help me alot

  230. ananya says:

    thanx

  231. kunark says:

    a very very helpful site

  232. vishal rao says:

    great project works, it helped me alot for doing my project work

  233. abdullahi adamu says:

    have seen the list of project topics and they are all great will like it more when i choose my own topic to write. Thanks alot

  234. SMILY says:

    gr8 work thnx alot it helped me n mah frndz alott.. :) :D

  235. aditya jain says:

    i want to make a project for physics of class 12. please suggest me a good topics.

  236. Zuha Chawla says:

    This is very helpful for me to choose the topics ….
    Thanks..!

  237. vidushi malhotra says:

    thanxxx for making my confusion away and helping me to choose the topic for my project

  238. hehhehe….nyc syt to cpy without using much of own witzz…:D

  239. aishwarya gupta says:

    i have to make a project on solubility and solubilty in products of solid plz help me

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  241. santosh sharma says:

    sala mera project to h he nhi
    Dying of Fabrics wala

  242. tarun says:

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  243. Habeeb says:

    Pls Boss, i want to send a complete work on d topic: Estimation of contents of Bone Ash………………. Be expecting your reply on my gmail. BOSS

  244. Rahul says:

    This is really a very helpful site

  245. THIS SITE IS REALLY HELPFUL. BUT MORE PROJECTS SHOULD BE ADDED.

  246. Vivek Sahu says:

    This Website is very helpful for me

  247. monu says:

    mjhe jo chahiye uske alawa sab hai apke paas…………..thnk u apse mjhe koi madad nai mili

  248. Kanish says:

    Thanku “hlp k liye”

  249. rajdulari says:

    sir i want to project of uses of metales…. please help me..

  250. rajdulari says:

    sir i want to chemistry project the uses of matales…please help me.

  251. Sidharth says:

    how to do a project for the analysis of soil for the presence of diffrent nutrients(K,I..etc.)
    Need help!

  252. prashant dixit says:

    this is the best site for chemistry

  253. vartika says:

    please help me guys i want to make a project on chemistry about drugs….

  254. kamlesh kamble says:

    thank you!!!

  255. ASHUTOSH PATHAK says:

    ONLY ONE IS GOOD

  256. Thanx………………. It helped me a lot.. I found some awesome topics here :D

  257. Rajeev yadav says:

    thanks this sight for help me see project

  258. Rajeev yadav says:

    thanks this sigh for help me to see project

  259. muhammad says:

    thank, this site help me alot ,I need information about (nylon) plastic that relate human life.

  260. vishal singh says:

    This site is very very useful for school and colleges students. By this any of us like student make its subject srap …………………

  261. Divyanshu soni says:

    thanx………..

  262. nagnath jegade says:

    I want to get project topics related to pharmacy

  263. JAISHANA says:

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  264. JAISHANA says:

    IT REALLY HELPED ME

  265. Anirban parua says:

    Thanks as they help me in doing project

  266. algin says:

    tank you dude……..

  267. soumya says:

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  268. ayana says:

    thankyou

  269. Jaseem says:

    hiii,
    these projects are very useful for me…..plz make the projects more lengthy with more than one or two observation column

  270. vitthal says:

    thanks u……helps to me

  271. vitthal says:

    also give a new project….abt chemistry

  272. Ashish says:

    Thanks it is very helpful to me. It helped me to make my project .It is very usefull 4 student.

  273. bhumika says:

    awesome site

  274. Rishabh says:

    I Want To Find A Investigatory Project On Chemistry

  275. meeta says:

    best!!!!!!!!!!!!!! perfect website for all topics ….
    I WISH U ASLO HAD PROJECT IDEAS FOR EVS (ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES) THIS IS THE ONLY TOPIC WERE THIS WEBSITE LACKS BEHIND
    or else just gr8 job 4 making d hard work of project soooo easyyyy!!!!

  276. bharani says:

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  277. Baheer osuli says:

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  278. rahul says:

    i m thankful to this site

  279. kamesh gurjar says:

    It is very helpful site

  280. jatin sharma says:

    thanks a lot.!!

  281. Naveen Sadashiv Pujary says:

    I want to make chemistry project.Please

  282. mahendra says:

    total fargewada……. generation ko aage bdne ka mauka he nhe deya ja rha….

  283. Kundon gogoi says:

    Chemistry is the
    best subject for us

  284. prashant kawade says:

    it is a mokar bhari ,changalay must ahe

  285. nilesh solapure says:

    Very nice.
    So esy for projectproject.
    Thanku…….

  286. cello says:

    dis is so helpful. but m not sure dat i can do any1 of this.

  287. shivangi says:

    thnx alot

  288. mohi says:

    nayinte thendi inda patti na indi amma pottan

  289. beaudin aloysius st pauls public school,fortkochi says:

    myre!!!!!!! pooorrrrrr…….oru kopumilla!!!!!!

  290. Pravin Kale says:

    Tell me project on

    determination of mass persentage of oil from oil seeds

  291. Gayatri suresh says:

    thank uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu so much this web site helped meee a lot…………………………….

  292. Prachi Sharma says:

    lovly site
    im very happy that i found this site .
    i get tensed for my project but help of this site i will make my project best . :)

  293. chirag aggarwal says:

    its’s really nice

  294. pari says:

    loved it

  295. ananya says:

    thnq fr ths wndrfl site….i foubd it tody…n it helpd me alot…..
    Thnxz

  296. ichu says:

    plz help me to find out abt-Dialysis and analysis of sewage water

  297. Tapan Kumar Panda says:

    Man the project on biofuels is just awsome . killer site

  298. Midhun mohan says:

    no project on the topic ‘tanic acid content in various tea samples’.

  299. F. Randolph says:

    10x a lot. This site is very helpful for students wanting to do their chemistry project.

  300. F. Randolph says:

    10x a lot. Excellent joa!

  301. ranjith ambekar says:

    A Very good website for 12th students.
    It Helped me a lot to go forward with projects in both 11th adn12th

  302. Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?
    I have a blog centered on the same ideas you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information.
    I know my viewers would enjoy your work. If you are even remotely interested,
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  303. Urvashi says:

    This information is very useful, I really appreciate

  304. adhil c azad says:

    very helpfull

  305. abhay says:

    Pls help me for the. Chemistry project of. . . Qualitative assisment of coins

  306. vishwajeet says:

    This is tooooooo…. good.

  307. purnima says:

    thanks
    it was really useful

  308. Nira says:

    this site help me alot. Thank you very much……

  309. Nira says:

    nice project
    thankxxxxx

  310. ATHIRA LEKSHMI M.S says:

    This site had helped me a lot to select the topic 4 my project………………thnxx a lot

  311. Nipun says:

    i want to make a project on how to measure the amount of chlorine in a water sample….please help..

  312. khan imran says:

    its to good for students

  313. Siddharth says:

    best and simplest ever website

  314. Shenaya says:

    Guyss plzz help me to get d best topic for chemistry project… em little bit confused on seeing above topics as all r of gud approach … plzz help fast…

  315. cutegal says:

    i need a project having the aim:
    “TO DETErMINE THE FAT CONTENTS IN VArIOUS KINDS OF DrY FrUITS”
    can u plz give me some details?

  316. Tarun gupta says:

    this site is my bst moptin to help me in any project work…

  317. #Rajat #Thakur says:

    Ths syt help m a lott so vry2 txxxxx 2 u ($ite developrs) :-) ******

  318. SOMEYA says:

    AMAZING, FABULOUS, LIKED IT!!!!
    THE LIST OF PROJECTS ARE REALLY GOOD AND HELPFUL

  319. onam says:

    i want a project on stability of emulsions i.e on emulsifyng agent…… :-(
    can u help me……

  320. ajay says:

    plz help me prepare a working chemistry project
    thankyou

  321. vishal yadav says:

    plz get me a project on determination of acid contnts in sour fruits asap

  322. Asaad says:

    ths website is good not best….
    all r projects experimantly not Theoriticaly even 1 single project

  323. vijay says:

    thanks to all

  324. Very good info. Lucky me I recently found your website by accident (stumbleupon).
    I have book-marked it for later!

  325. SACHAK LUKA says:

    hey guys, i want to write on: Determination of heavy metals in palm oil

  326. shivam says:

    I want project on presence of different funtion group in perfume

  327. YASH says:

    to dermine silver from x-ray film????????procedure????

  328. it is vry good nd nice project……… bt i sour ki isse hmare mind ki knowlege hi badegi

  329. Dhulesh Sanket says:

    This site help me and my friend a lot

  330. ekta says:

    easy to make my project wid this

  331. suchita says:

    sir, i need project on “Qualitative analysis of toothpaste”. i have done this experiment in lab. but my teacher is asking for the theory portion of minimum 15pages. i hav used colgate total & pepsodant(germi-check) to analyse. i realy need the help urgently coz im nt getting a single site to help me out.

  332. atul says:

    i wanaa a new topic on chemistry investigation project

  333. sruthy sreekumar says:

    can i get a project on the topic-effect of potassium bisulphate as a food preservative…?????

  334. Soumojit naskar says:

    wowwww……it rly hlpd dude…

  335. komal tapkir says:

    Tanxxxx very much….

  336. ntin bhati says:

    Awsm site it helpd me a lot..

  337. vivek says:

    sir do you have more new project?
    if upload them……..

  338. sagar singh says:

    i want tu make project on phys. and chem. of class 12 plz help me,…

  339. shashikant says:

    sir i want a project on the topic synthesis of “soap and detergent”
    plz plz
    plz
    help me out

  340. akash khilari says:

    really helpful at crucial times
    u doing a great work

  341. ethan says:

    you are a moterfuckin bitch….thats all….

  342. anupam chaurasia says:

    very very good projects write it as it is without editing

  343. RISHABH AGGARWAL says:

    Its a good site for projects
    thanks a lot.

  344. mahendra says:

    Thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx for help……….

  345. Devesh singh says:

    Thk’s sir ….ths site really help full…:-)

  346. vignesh.v says:

    it was about thinging level “thank you “

  347. kapil chauhan says:

    wow………………………………..it’s wonderful. I’really like it.

  348. pooja rathod says:

    thnkx for open this side for us………….

  349. Kunal says:

    Thanks! to this website it helped me for my project.

  350. aman says:

    i need to me make project of physics……………………….. plz plz plz plz plz plz plz plz plz hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhheeeeeeeeeeeeeeeellllllllllllllllllllllllppppppppppppppp mmmmmmmmmmmeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

  351. Vikram Rajguda says:

    Its really HELP dude…

  352. prince says:

    i need a project on
    to analyse constituents of honey

  353. aman rana says:

    most help full site

  354. Mohdlimdi23 says:

    10xx alot…d site saved me…cozz it waz impossible 2 search for n work on a topic in juzz 4-5 dayzz b4 prac exmzz…cozz v wer infrmd soo..!!

  355. sameer says:

    thx …. it helped alot

  356. These projects need some improvisation other wise its quite okay

  357. Sanskar chauhan says:

    more improvment had to be needed in this site
    good but not excellent

  358. ROHIT SHARMA says:

    THIS STUFFF HELP ME A LOTTTT TO MAKE MY PROJECT FILE……………….

  359. rosh says:

    wowwww……This information is very useful……it really helps alote…….thanx

  360. asguard says:

    get lost dis site is a total syapa nd , bitch plzzz…

  361. rahul sharma says:

    thanku i have no word to say thankes

  362. its very helpful and handy
    i got first prize for my project….. :)

  363. deepa singh thakur says:

    this site is very helpfull for me………………….

  364. rubal says:

    i want the readings of study of rates of fermentation of apple and carrot juice.. can anybody give?

  365. amit ranjan says:

    can some one give me observation table of topic-fermentation of various food materials pls

  366. Jyoti Prakash Satsangi says:

    Plaese help in making chemistry project

  367. ashu gupta says:

    thanks these projects help me a lot

  368. neha says:

    this is really a good website

  369. really helped a lot thnx :)

  370. Akash mishra says:

    this site is really nice for all…………….

  371. danish Sabbag says:

    its a very helpful site. I got many topics for my project

    Thanks…….

  372. Sakshi Dhiman says:

    Chemistry poject for class 11th. PLEASE HELP.

  373. gentility says:

    thanx u for helping student

  374. SAGORIKA CHAKRABORTY says:

    Many Many thanks to this site and to all who have submitted the project report in this site. Once again thanks to all as it help me a lot for completion of my project work.

  375. Yusuf khan says:

    a very helpful site

  376. rude rajput says:

    !!!!!!!!!!!!!!AMAZING SITES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    really dude very helpful sites with latest opricald!!!!!!!!!!!!!………………………
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  377. boss says:

    very bad

  378. anuj rajput says:

    thnxx for help ur m give u lots of thnxxx

  379. Nitish says:

    Thank you sir

  380. f says:

    this site is so helpful. to me to complete. my chemistry. project

  381. f says:

    wao……………… this site is nice nude

  382. ABHISHEK VERMA says:

    this website is really helpful for the students

  383. shone peter says:

    thanks buddy

  384. Sandeep says:

    This site is very useful for student

  385. Pradyota kumar behera says:

    ahighily appriciate project. well better than other

  386. jyoti rao says:

    thanku for this site

  387. Akaash says:

    Thanx Alot to my this site.. it helped me many times… and its helping me nwdays also.. once again thanks

  388. Akaash says:

    thanx….

  389. pappu bhai says:

    bakwas 3rd class

  390. nandu says:

    go to hell…
    bakwas…
    agli baar mat karna

  391. zoya khan says:

    it is the nice one
    but very confusing…..
    would u like to help me….

  392. abc says:

    Bhenchod lauda project !!! no use need CBSE topics fool!!

  393. amalraj quilon says:

    its helpfulll dudes .thanks

  394. Navnath salunkhe says:

    Very imp

  395. vikz gehlot says:

    i m from vasishtha vidhyalaya surat… and really appriciete this site as sir has given us…

  396. sathish says:

    u r project is good if any project aveilable. . . . mail me

  397. ketan says:

    this is very nic web site for all subject & very IMP for school project

  398. Drita says:

    guys i will recommend all to use this site since it is very helpful and all the projects are according to the CBSE guidelines except one or two which does not have certificates or acknowledgement or the other stuffs.

  399. Chaitanya says:

    thank you so much the projects are really helpful and interesting

  400. subhiksha says:

    wow what a site! it gave me a helping hand in my project

  401. pawan says:

    i want a isc 2 project topic in chemistry.

  402. garima jain says:

    i want to make a project on analysis of honey plz upload some more previous years files to make my project easier

  403. Arsh Makhdumi says:

    Nice and helpful website. Got great help.

  404. shokoya Saheed damilare says:

    Α̲̅♍ damn apy 4 dis outcome… Dis site Ȋ̝̊̅ڪ fucking wow

  405. I pay a quick visit every day a few web sites and sites to read
    posts, except this blog offers quality based content.

  406. It helped me a lot but most of the topics are covered by my classmates.So,I am trying to make project on contents of medical drugs.so plz help me.
    thank you

  407. kriss says:

    pls I need a write up on eco-friendly detergent containing zeolite

  408. rithvik says:

    please i need project on analysis of tooth paste plss

  409. Onele monday says:

    Thanks alot! More effort should be made to have project topic on the chemistry of fire and crime chemistry…

  410. alka says:

    I want yo make project for biology and chemistry . help me out sir plz…………………………..

  411. varsha saini says:

    I want to make chemistry project …….plzz. help me.

  412. fathima beevi says:

    I want to do the assignment work on imperfection of soap. Kindly give me some materials required for the assignment. I am a student of plus two science group.

  413. deeksha rawat says:

    thank u sooooo much :D i m so happy u gguys rock !!! saying this from the bottom of my heart !!!!!!!

  414. Vivek Jain says:

    This site really helped in finding the projects!
    Thanks for helping me out here!

  415. SAURABH PRADHAN says:

    THIS SITE IS VERY MUCH HELPFUL FOR FINDING SOME PROJECTS ,I LIKE IT VERY MUCH…………!!!!!!!!!

  416. katty says:

    Hey!!! I want a project on presences of nickel in different chocolates…..
    plz help me out…… I cant find it out…..

  417. preet kaur says:

    Thank u sir ……u r doing a grt job ….

  418. akshita says:

    good site. good material saves time

  419. *DEEPIKA* says:

    thankuuuuuuuuuuu soooooooo much.
    u reduced my work load a lot****

  420. nikki saifi says:

    presence of zinc sulfate in close up —- project is not there ????

  421. gangadhar says:

    ya really student’s help ful site!!! Hope can include some more topics

  422. tanya says:

    sir, can u plz help me .
    i need a chemistry project on analysis of caffeine in energy drinks…plz plz plz help me. i am not getting it

  423. geetanjli says:

    I want to make project file based on topic polymers..
    please help me in this…

  424. nikki says:

    i need a projetc on prence of zinc sufate in close up
    as there is along list of project but project which i hav chosen that was not there so plz help me out of it
    as soon as possible

  425. Sara Shahi says:

    this website was absolutely no help at all. if you people wanna help students then please give us interesting experiments. all these tests that yu keep talking about, we do in the lab already. so get a life. seriously. and let us also live ours.

  426. Anurag Tiwari says:

    thanks a lot…………………
    this site is very helpful site for every student………..

  427. Raman Anand says:

    This site is really very nice it help me out to choose a good project

  428. vieneiteu koza says:

    Wen it cums 2 project “Heads Off….”^^ but wen i find out this site everything was settle down! Thank u so much 4 all ur contribution and ideas!

  429. forevernhearts kavi says:

    its really a dumb of topics…………. useless projects for receieving even a school award………!!!! close up this trashsite…..

  430. Sanket Shivalkar says:

    wowww……. Thank you ! this site has helped me a lot.

  431. Darshit Jain says:

    I have to make project on holi colours ? So kindly help me what information I should collect ?

  432. Anchal says:

    this site proved to be really helpful.
    Thanks a lot…..

  433. kapil says:

    please help me project on physical properties of amorphous and crystalline solid

  434. abhiraj says:

    plllzzz plzz publish projects for physics if nt den plzz atleast topics!!

  435. sakshi says:

    I want to make chemistry project …hlp me

  436. jai says:

    i wanna make a chemistry project, i’m in 12th standard please suggest me some options my contact no. is 9718484208

  437. Realy i appreciate this page for supplying us with project topic & thier solution
    thank you chemist i am your follower(young chemist)

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